Post-abduction syndrome

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This article deals only with a proposed syndrome. For information on related topics see:


Post-abduction Syndrome (PAS), also sometimes called Post-abduction Stress Syndrome (PASS), is a collection of symptoms commonly reported by persons who claim they have been the victim of an alien abduction. The syndrome is not officially recognized by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association or by equivalent professional associations in other nations. PAS shares many symptoms with the officially recognized Post-traumatic Stress Disorder but is not the same. PAS does not refer to all abductions, e.g., a criminal kidnapping, but only those allegedly involving "alien abductions".

Various researchers report that many of the symptoms reported in PAS situations are similar or identical to reports of encounters with demons or other paranormal phenomena. (Catoe 1978; Vallée 1988; Alnor 1992; Ross 2002)

[edit] Controversial views and issues

The nature and validity of UFO's, the UFO phenomenon and the alien abduction phenomenon are extremely controversial issues encompassing a wide range of opinions. PAS is not currently considered by mental health associations as describing a recognized mental health condition and there is ongoing debate as to whether PAS describes a condition that should be considered a mental health problem and the specific nature of that problem.

[edit] UFO phenomenon

"UFO phenomenon" is a term developed by researchers, e.g., Jacques F. Vallée,* to describe certain events that often have common characteristics including sighting an unidentified flying object, interaction with apparently intelligent non-human beings, certain types of poltergeist activity, and/or things that appear to be manufactured physical objects but that defy the laws of physics, e.g., a "flying saucer" making a 90-degree turn while traveling at 15,000 miles per hour. (Vallée 1988; Ross 2002) The difference between "UFO" and "UFO phenomenon" is that a "phenomenon" occurrence does not necessarily involve a "flying object" or an apparent vehicle (such as a landed "flying saucer"). (Vallée 1988; Ross 2002)

* French astronomer / ufologist / computer scientist Jacques F. Vallée should not be confused with Canadian astronomer Jacques P. Vallée.

[edit] Alien abduction

Main article: Abduction phenomenon

Alien abduction refers to the hypothesis than an individual has been abducted by an intelligent being either from another planet (the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis, ETH), or from an "alternate reality" (the Interdimensional Hypothesis, IDH).

Some Christian researchers accept the IDH and assert that the "alternate reality" is the spirit world and the beings are demons. (Weldon, Levitt 1975; Sumrall 1984; Alnor 1992; Ross 2002) This religious interpretation is acknowledged by secular researchers such as Keel (1970) and Vallee (1988).

[edit] Syndrome

PAS is based on a cluster of symptoms initially compiled by alien abduction researcher Budd Hopkins and described in his books Missing Time (1981) and Intruders (1987). The purpose of PAS is to help determine whether someone shows the cluster of symptoms typically indicated by persons believed to have been exposed to certain phenomena, regardless of the actual nature of those phenomena. It is not the purpose of PAS to determine whether alien abductions, UFO's or UFO encounters involve physical objects, or to determine the nature of purported events as natural, paranormal, supernatural, etc.

[edit] Symptoms

Following are some of the symptoms described by Hargrove (2000): [1]

  • Persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic event characterized by flashbacks (APA, 1994)
  • Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma (APA, 1994)
  • Denial of the event
  • Labeling the event something else-"blackout", being lost, etc.
  • Phobic avoidance of areas or situations where contact occurred.
  • Refraining from sleep at the time contact occurred-sleeping in the daytime
  • Emotional reaction to literature, pictures, or videos about alien entities e.g. turning over books with a picture of an alien or UFO which may include avoiding them. (Bryant, 1991)
  • Numbing of emotions and responsiveness characterized by inability to feel intimacy, pleasure, or to express emotions-emotional anesthesia. (APA, 1994, Bryant,1991)
  • Diminished interest or less participation in previously enjoyed activities. (APA, 1994)
  • May have a sense of foreshortened future -no expectation of normal life events or normal life span. (APA, 1994)
  • May fear abduction with no return or lengthy abduction.
  • Anxiety symptoms that persist-hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, irritability, and panic attacks (APA, 1994)

[edit] Sources

  • Abduction Study Conference; Pritchard, David; Pritchard, Andrea (1995). Alien Discussions: Proceedings of the Abduction Study Conference Held at M.I.T. Cambridge, Ma. (Textbook Binding) (in English), North Cambridge Press, 683 pp. ISBN 0-9644917-0-2. 
  • Alnor, William M. (1992). UFOs in the New Age - Extraterrestrial Messages and the Truth of Scripture (paperback) (in English), Grand Rapids, MN: Baker Book House, 293 pp. ISBN 0-8010-0226-5. 
  • American Psychiatric Association [1994] (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition, DSM-IV-TR 4th Ed. (in English), American Psychiatric Publishing, 943 pp. ISBN 0-89042-025-4. 
  • Bryant, Alice; Seebach, Linda, M.S.W. (1991). Healing Shattered Reality: Understanding Contactee Trauma (paperback) (in English), Tigard, OR: Wildflower Press, 283 pp. ISBN 0-926524-16-X. 
  • Catoe, Lynn E. [1978] (2002). UFOs and Related Subjects: A Bibliography prepared by the Library of Congress Science and Technology Division, for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of Aerospace Research (hardcover), Annot. Ed. (in English), Martino Publishing, 401 pp. ISBN 1-57898-394-0. 
  • Hopkins, Budd (1981). Missing Time (hardcover), 1st. ed. (in English), Penguin Group (USA), 256 pp. ISBN 0-399-90102-7. 
  • Hopkins, Budd (1987). Intruders (hardcover), 1st Ed. (in English), Random House Publishing Group, 288 pp. ISBN 0-394-56076-0. 
  • Jacobs, Ph.D., David M. (1988). "Post-Abduction Syndrome". MUFON 1988 International UFO Symposium Proceedings: pp. 91-92, Seguin,Texas: MUFON Inc.. 
  • Jacobs, Ph.D., David M. (1992). Secret Life: Firsthand Accounts of UFO Abductions (paperback), Reprint 1993 (in English), New York: Simon & Schuster, 340 pp. ISBN 0-671-79720-4. 
  • Keel, John A. [1970] (1996). UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse (in English). Illuminet Pr, 285 pp. ISBN 0-9626534-6-2. 
  • Mack, M.D., John E. (1995). Abduction: Human Encounters with Aliens (paperback), Reprint ed. (in English), Ballantine Books, 464 pp. ISBN 0-345-39300-7. 
  • Mack, M.D., John E. (1999). Passport to the Cosmos- Human Transformation and Alien Encounters (paperback) (in English), New York: Three Rivers Press, 333 pp. ISBN 0-609-80557-6. 
  • Ross, Ph.D., Hugh; Samples, Kenneth; Clark, Mark (2002). Lights in the Sky & Little Green Men (paperback) (in English), Colorado Springs: NavPress, 255 pp. ISBN 1-57683-208-2. 
  • Sumrall, Lester (1984). Alien Entities - Beings from Beyond (paperback) (in English), South Bend, IN: LeSEA Publishing, 232 pp. ISBN 0-89274-320-4. 
  • Vallee, Ph.D., Jacques (1988). Dimensions: A Casebook of Alien Contact, 1st ed., Contemporary Books, 304 pp. ISBN 0-8092-4586-8. 
  • Weldon, Ph.D., John; Levitt, Zola (1975). Encounters with UFO's, 1st ed. (in English), Harvest House Publishers, 175 pp. 
  • (1987) in Williams, Tom, Psy.D., Editor.: Posttraumatic Stress Disorders: A Handbook For Clinicians (in English). Cincinnati: Disabled American Veterans.  (Cited by Hargrove)

[edit] See also

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