THE CONTROLLERS: A
New Hypothesis of Alien Abduction
Part 1, 2,
1. Budd Hopkins, MISSING TIME
(New York: Richard Marek Publishers, 1981) and INTRUDERS
(New York: Random House, 1987).
2. Whitley Strieber,
COMMUNION (New York: Beech Tree Books, 1987). 3. Cannon,
"Psychiatric Abuse of UFO Witness," UFO magazine, vol.
3, no. 5 (December, 1988)
4. Philip Klass, UFO
ABDUCTIONS: A DANGEROUS GAME (Buffalo: Prometheus Books,
1988). Klass makes some sharp observations, which are
undercut by his refusal to interview abductees directly.
The work has no footnotes and depends heavily on the
work of Dr. Martin "Bob" Orne -- of whom more anon.
5. See bibliography.
6. New York: Bantam Books,
7. See generally PROJECT
MKULTRA, THE CIA'S PROGRAM OF RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR
MODIFICATION, joint hearing before the Select Committee
on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on
Human Resources, Unites States Senate (Washington:
Government Printing Office, 1977).
8. Robert Eringer, "Secret
Agent Man," ROLLING STONE, 1985.
9. John Marks interview with
Victor Marchetti (Marks files, available at the National
Security Archives, Washington, D.C.).
10. In an interview with John
Marks, hypnosis expert Milton Kline, a veteran of
clandestine experimentation in this field, averred that
his work for the government continued. Since the
interview took place in 1977, years after the CIA
allegedly halted mind control research, we must conclude
either that the CIA lied, or that another agency
continued the work. In another interview with Marks,
former Air Force-CIA liaison L. Fletcher Prouty
confirmed that the Department of Defense ran studies
either in conjunction with or parallel to those operated
by the CIA. (Marks files.)
11. Estabrooks, HYPNOSIS (New
York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1957 [revised
12. A copy of this letter can
be found in the Marks files.
13. Estabrooks attracted an
eclectic group of friends, including J. Edgar Hoover and
14. Interview with daughter
Doreen Estabrooks, Marks files, Washington, D.C.
15. Martin A. Lee and Bruce
Shlain, ACID DREAMS (New York: Grove Press, 1985) 3-4;
Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 6-8
16. Marks, ibid. 4-6.
17. Edward Hunter,
BRAINWASHING IN RED CHINA (New York: Vanguard Press,
1951.). Hunter invented the term "brainwashing" in a
September 24, 1950 Miami NEWS article.
18. "Japan's Germ Warfare
Experiments," THE GLOBE AND MAIL (Toronto), May 19,
19. Walter Bowart, OPERATION
MIND CONTROL (New York: Dell, 1978), 191-2, quoting
Warren Commission documents. We cannot fairly derive
from this statement a sanguine attitude about PRESENT
Soviet capabilities; in this field, even outdated
technology suffices for mischief.
20. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR
"THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 60-61. A folk etymology has
it that the "MK" of MKULTRA stands for "Mind Kontrol."
According to Marks, TSS prefixed the cryptonyms of all
its projects with these initials. Note, though, that
MKULTRA was preceded by a still-mysterious TSS program
21. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR
"THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 224-229. Seven MKULTRA
subprojects were continued, under TSS supervision, as
MKSEARCH. This project ended in 1972. CIA apologists
often proclaim that "brainwashing" research ceased in
either 1962 or 1972; these blandishments refer to the
TSS projects, not to the ORD work, which remains TERRA
INCOGNITA for independent researchers. Marks discovered
that the ORD research was so voluminous that retrieving
documents via FOIA would have proven unthinkably
22. For a description of the
research into parapsychology, see Ronald M. McRae's MIND
WARS (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984). The best book
available on a subject which awaits a truly
23. Abduction researcher and
hypnotherapist Miranda Park, of Lancaster, California,
reports that she has viewed such anomalies in abductee
MRI scans. See also Whitley Strieber, TRANSFORMATION
(New York: Beech Tree Books, 1988) 246-247. At this
writing, both Strieber and Hopkins report initially
promising results in their efforts to document the
presence of these "extras" in abductees.
24. Allegedly, the experiment
took place in 1964. However, in WERE WE CONTROLLED? (New
Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1967), the pseudonymous
"Lincoln Lawrence" makes an interesting argument (on
page 36) that the demonstration took place some years
25. New York: Harper and Row,
1969. Much of Delgado's work was funded by the Office of
Naval Intelligence, a common conduit for CIA funds
during the 1950s and '60s. (Gordon Thomas' JOURNEY INTO
MADNESS (New York: Bantam, 1989) misleadingly implies
that CIA interest in Delgado's work began in 1972.)
26. J.M.R. "Bob" Delgado.
"Intra-cerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in
Completely Free Patients," PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY (Robert L.
Schwitzgebel and Ralph K. Schwitzgebel, editors; New
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973): 195.
27. David Krech, "Controlling
the Mind Controllers," THINK 32 (July- August), 1966.
28. Delgado, PHYSICAL CONTROL
OF THE MIND
29. Delgado, "Intra-cerebral
Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely free
30. Note, for example,
Charles Hickson's account of the Pascagoula Incident.
Charles Hickson and William Mendez, UFO CONTACT AT
PASCOGOULA (Tuscon: Wendelle C. Stevens, 1983).
31. John Ranleigh, THE AGENCY
(New York: Simon and Shuster, 1986): 208. Marchetti
casts this story in the form of an amusing anecdote:
After much time and expense, a cat was suitably trained
and prepared -- only, on its first assignment, to be run
over by a taxi. Marchetti neglects to point out that
nothing stopped the Agency from getting another cat. Or
from using a human being.
32. Of course, this
suggestion raises the knotty question of whether the
abductees suffer from a form of schizophrenia, which may
also be characterized by "voices." I refer the reader to
the work of Hopkins, Strieber, Thomas Bullard, and
others who have described the difficulties of ascribing
all abductions to psychotic states.
33. Alan W. Scheflin and
Edward M. Opton, Jr., THE MIND MANIPULATORS (London:
Paddington Press, 1978), 347.
34. Thomas, JOURNAY INTO
35. James Olds, "Hypothalamic
Substrates of Reward," PHYSIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, 1962,
42:554; "Emotional Centers in the Brain," SCIENCE
JOURNAL, 1967, 3 (5).
36. Vernon Mark and Frank
Ervin, VIOLENCE AND THE BRAIN (New York: Harper and Row,
1970), chapter 12, excerpted in INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND
THE FEDERAL ROLE IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, prepared by
the Staff of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights
of the Committee of the Judiciary, United States Senate
(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1974).
37. John Lilly, THE SCIENTIST
(Berkeley, Ronin Publishing, 1988 [revised edition]),
90. Monkeys allowed to stimulate themselves continually
via ESB brought themselves to orgasm once every three
minutes, sixteen hours a day. Scientific gatherings
throughout the world saw motion pictures of these
experiments, which surely made spectacular cinema.
38. Scheflin and Opton, THE
MIND MANIPULATORS, 336-337. Heath even monitored his
patient's brain responses during the subject's first
heterosexual encounter. Such is the nature of the brave
new world before us.
39. Robert L. Schwitzgebel
and Richard M. Bird, "Sociotechnical Design Factors in
Remote Instrumentation with Humans in Natural
Environments," BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS AND
INSTRUMENTATION, 1970, 2, 99-105.
40. Thomas, JOURNEY INTO
MADNESS, 277. In the BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS AND
INSTRUMENTATION article referenced above, Schwitzgebel
details how the radio signals may be fed into a
telephone via a modem and thus analyzed by a computer
anywhere in the world.
41. Scheflin and Opton, THE
MIND MANIPULATORS, 347-349.
42. Louis Tackwood and the
Citizen's Research and Investigation Committee, THE
GLASS HOUSE TAPES (New York: Avon, 1973), 226.
43. Perry London, BEHAVIOR
CONTROL (New York: Harper and Row, 1969), 145
44. Scheflin and Opton, THE
MIND MANIPULATORS, 351-353; Tackwood, THE GLASS HOUSE
45. "Beepers in kids' heads
could stop abductors," Las Vegas SUN, Oct. 27, 1987.
46. Lilly, THE SCIENTIST, 91.
47. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR
"THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 151-154.
48. Interestingly, Lilly has
come out of the closet as a sort of proto-Strieber; THE
SCIENTIST recounts his close interaction with alien
(though not necessarily extraterrestrial) forces which
he labels "solid state entities."
49. The story of Deep Trance,
an MKULTRA "insider" who provided invaluable
information, is somewhat involved. I do not know who
Trance is/was and Marks may not know either. He
contacted Trance via the writer of an article published
shortly before research on THE SEARCH FOR "THE
MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE" began, addressing his informant
"Dear Source whose anonymity I respect." I respect it
too -- hence my reticence to name the aforementioned
article, which may mark a trail to Trance. The fact that
I have not followed this trail would not prevent others
from doing so. [And if Trance were a CIA disinformation
source a la William Cooper, this is precisely the
behavior they would count on. -jpg]
50. London, BEHAVIOR CONTROL,
51. See generally, UFO
magazine, Vol. 4, No. 2; especially the interesting
contribution by Whitley Strieber.
52. Lawrence, WERE WE
CONTROLLED?, 36-37; Anita Gregory, "Introduction to
Leonid L. Vasilev's EXPERIMENTS IN DISTANT INFLUENCE,"
PSYCHIC WARFARE: FACT OR FICTION (editor: John White)
(Nottinghamshire: Aquarian, 1988) 34-57.
53. Lawrence, WERE WE
54. Bowart, OPERATION MIND
55. Ibid. 263.
56. Lawrence, WERE WE
57. HUMAN DRUG TESTING BY THE
58. Note especially the
Supreme Court's decision in CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
ET Al. V. SIMS, ET AL. (No. 83-1075; decided April 16,
1986). The egregious and dangerous majority opinion in
this case held that disclosure of the names of
scientists and institutions involved in MKULTRA posed an
"unacceptable risk of revealing 'intelligence sources.'
The decisions of the [CIA] Director, who must of course
be familiar with 'the whole picture,' as judges are not,
are worthy of great deference...it is conceivable that
the mere explanation of why information must be withheld
can convey valuable information to a foreign
intelligence agency." How do we square this continuing
need for secrecy with the CIA's protestations that
MKULTRA achieved little success, that the studies were
conducted within the Nueremberg statues governing
medical experiments, and that the research was made
available in the open literature?
59. Letter, P.A. Lindstrom to
Robert Naeslund, July 27, 1983; copy available from
Martti Koski, Kiilinpellontie 2, 21290 Rusko, Finland.
Lindstrom writes that he fully agrees with Lincoln
Lawrence, author of WERE WE CONTROLLED?
60. Bowart, OPERATION MIND
CONTROL, 265. I have attempted without success to
contact Dr. Lindstrom.
61. Bowart, OPERATION MIND
CONTROL, 233-249. This interview was reprinted without
attribution in a bizarre compendium of UFO rumors called
THE MATRIX, compiled by "Valdamar Valerian" (actually
John Grace, allegedly a captain working for Air Force
62. Robert Anton Wilson,
"Adventures with Head Hardware," MAGICAL BLEND, 23 [of
course], July 1989.
63. Michael Hutchison, MEGA
BRAIN (New York: Ballantine, 1986); Gerald Oster,
"Auditory Beats in the Brain," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN,
64. Marilyn Ferguson, THE
BRAIN REVOLUTION (New York: Taplinger, 1973), 90.
65. Ibid., 91-92. The
presence of delta in a waking subject can indicate
66. Bio-Pacer promotional and
price sheet, available from Lindemann Laboratories, 3463
State Street, #264, Santa Barbara, CA 93105.
67. Hutchison, MEGA BRAIN,
117-118. Compare Light's observations about "the grant
game" to Sid Gottlieb's protestations that nearly all
"mind control" research was openly published.
68. Thomas Martinez and John
Gunther, THE BROTHERHOOD OF MURDER (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1988), 230.
69. Interview, Sandy Monroe
of the Los Angeles office of the Christic Institute.
70. See generally Paul
Brodeur, THE ZAPPING OF AMERICA (Toronto, George J.
71. Until recently, the
American Embassy was on a street named after the
72. It was finally determined
that the microwaves were used to receive transmissions
from bugs planted within the embassy. DARPA director
George H. Heimeier went on record stating that PANDORA
was never designed to study "microwaves as a
surveillance tool." See Anne Keeler, "Remote Mind
Control Technology," FULL DISCLOSURE #15. I would note
that the Soviet embassy was "bugged and waved" in Canada
during the 1950s, and according to the Los Angeles TIMES
(June 5, 1989), the Soviet embassy in Britain had been
73. Ronald I. Adams R.A.
Williams, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATION (RADIOWAVES AND MICROWAVES) EURASIAN COMMUNIST
COUNTRIES, (Defense Intelligence Agency, March 1976.)
Brodeur notes that much of the work ascribed to the
Soviets in this report was actually first accomplished
by scientists in the United States. Keeler argues that
this report constitutes an example of "mirror imaging"
-- i.e., parading domestic advances as a foreign threat,
the better to pry funding from a suitably-fearful
74. Keeler, "Remote Mind
75. R.J. MacGregor, "A Brief
Survey of Literature Relating to Influence of Low
Intensity Microwaves on Nervous Function" (Santa Monica:
RAND Corporation, 1970).
76. Keeler, "Remote Mind
77. Larry Collins, "Mind
Control," PLAYBOY, January 1990.
78. Allan H. Frey,
"Behavioral Effects of Electromagnetic Energy,"
SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND MEASUREMENTS OF
RADIO FREQUENCIES/MICRO- WAVES, DeWitt G. Hazzard,
editor (U.S. Department of Health, Education and
79. quoted in THE APPLICATION
OF TESLA'S TECHNOLOGY IN TODAY'S WORLD (Montreal:
Lafferty, Hardwood & Partners, Ltd., 1978).
80. Keeler, "Remote Mind
81. L. George Lawrence,
"Electronics and Brain Control," POPULAR ELECTRONICS,
82. Susan Schiefelbein, "The
Invisible Threat," SATURDAY REVIEW, September 15, 1979.
83. E. Preston, "Studies on
the Nervous System, Cardiovascular Function and
Thermoregulation," BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIO FREQUENCY
AND MICROWAVE RADIATION, edited by H.M. Assenheim
(Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council of Canada,
84. Robert O. Becker, THE
BODY ELECTRIC (New York: William Morrow, 1985) 318-319.
86. Ibid., 321.
87. See Bowart's OPERATION
MIND CONTROL, page 218, for an interesting example of
this "rationalization" process at work in the case of
Sirhan Sirhan, who was convicted for the assassination
of Robert F. Kennedy. In prison, Sirhan was hypnotized
by Dr. Bernard Diamond, who instructed Sirhan to climb
the bars of his cage like a monkey. He did so. After the
trance was removed, Sirhan was shown tapes of his
actions; he insisted that he "acted like a monkey" of
his own free will -- he claimed he wanted the exercise.
88. Keeler suggests that the
proposal was revealed only because Schapitz'
sensationalistic implications may have worked to his
discredit -- and therefore hide -- the REAL research.
Personally, I don't accept this argument, but I respect
Keeler's instincts enough to repeat her caveat here.
89. Margaret Cheney's TESLA:
A MAN OUT OF TIME (New York: Dell, 1981), the most
reliable book in the sea of wild speculation surrounding
this extraordinary scientist, confirms Tesla's early
work with the psychological effects of electromagnetic
radiation. See especially pages 101-104; note also the
afterward, in which we learn that certain government
agencies have kept important research by Tesla hidden
from the general public.
90. Noted in Lawrence, WERE
WE CONTROLLED?, 29.
91. Particularly one Thomas
Bearden of Huntsville, Alabama; I have in my possession
a document written by Bearden associate Andrew
Michrowski which identifies Bearden as an intelligence
agent for an undisclosed agency.
92. Kathleen McAuliffe, "The
Mind Fields," OMNI magazine, February 1985.
93. May 5, 1985.
94. I refer to an individual
who later wrote a very clear-headed and thoughtful
letter to Dr. Paul Lowinger, who has graciously made his
files available to me. For now, I feel compelled to
withhold this person's name.
95. Cameron became president
of the American Psychiatric Association, the Canadian
Psychiatric Association, and the World Association of
Psychiatrists, He previously sat on the Nueremberg
panel, helping to draw up the statutes governing ethical
96. In particular, Opton and
Scheflin's overview, though excellent in scope and
detail, continually seeks reassuring interpretations of
evidence which points toward more distressing
97. Martin T. Orne, "Can a
hypnotized subject be compelled to carry out otherwise
unacceptable behavior?" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS, 1972, Vol. 20,
98. Marks mentions, in a
letter to Orne, the latter's claim to have been an
unwitting participant in subproject 84. Yet the papers
released concerning subproject 84 clearly establish the
Agency's willingness to put Orne in the know; Orne later
admitted to Marks that he was made aware of his CIA
sponsorship (Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN
CANDIDATE", 172-173). In an interview with Marks, Orne
discounted the story of Candy Jones (which we shall
recount later) by insisting that if such an experiment
had occurred "someone in some agency would have come to
me." Why would they come to him about a super-secret
project, unless Orne had a high security clearance and
worked extensively with intelligence agencies? Note also
that Orne conducted extensive studies for the Office of
Naval Research from June 1, 1968 to May 31, 1971. He has
also been funded by DARPA. Moreover, I consider
noteworthy the fact that Orne somehow became president
of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
despite the fact that the organization had decided not
to have a president. (This fact was related to Marks by
a prominent hypnosis specialist in an off-the-record
interview that I probably wasn't supposed to see.)
99. The story has been told
many times. See Turner and Christian's THE KILLING OF
ROBERT F. KENNEDY, 207-208; also Peter J. Reiter,
ANTISOCIAL OR CRIMINAL ACTS AND HYPNOSIS (Springfield,
Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1958).
100. John G. Watkins,
"Antisocial behavior under hypnosis: Possible or
impossible?" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR CLINICAL AND
EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS, 1972, Vol. 20, 95-100.
101. Milton H. Erickson, "An
experimental investigation of the possible anti-social
use of hypnosis," PSYCHIATRY, 1939, vol. 2. Erickson
argues that if a hypnotist has convinced his subject to
misperceive reality, then resulting actions cannot be
considered "anti-social," for the actions would be
acceptable within the subject's internal reality
construct. This argument strikes me as semantic
quibbling. [not me -jpg]
102. See generally Flo Conway
and Jim Seigelman, SNAPPING (New York: Lippincott,
103. Lee and Schlain, ACID
104. John Marks interview
with Victor Marchetti, December 19, 1977 (Marks files).
105. Martin T. Orne, "On the
Mechanisms of Posthypnotic Amnesia," THE INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS, 1966,
vol. 14, 121-134. Orne's work with post-hypnotic amnesia
was funded by NIMH, the Air Force Office of Scientific
Research, and the Office of Naval Research. I should
like to hear what innocent explanation, if any, the Air
Force has to offer to explain their interest in
post-hypnotic amnesia. ["We must not allow a
post-hypnotic-amnesia gap!" of course. -jpg]
106. Bowart, OPERATION MIND
107. Obviously Allan Dulles.
This may have been a hypnotically-induced delusion; on
the other hand, Dulles' legendary sexual rapacity makes
this claim rather less unlikely than one might first
assume. [WRONG! Obviously, this reference is to J.R.
"Bob" Dobbs, chief MC of the Church of SubGenius; the
initials A.D. refer to one of his pseudonyms, Adman
Destructor. "Bob's sexual rapacity is the stuff of
108. Always the best
indicator of whether or not hypnosis is genuine; I can't
understand why Orne didn't use this test in the Blanchi
109. Herbert Spiegel,
"Hypnosis and evidence: Help or hindrance," ANN. N.Y.
ACAD. SCI.; 1980, 347, 73-85.
110. See, for example,
Kroger, HYPNOSIS AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, 21-22
111. See especially Klass,
UFO ABDUCTIONS: A DANGEROUS GAME, 60-61. Orne,
interviewed here, makes reference to the work summarized
in his article "The use and misuse of hypnosis in court"
(INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL HYPNOSIS, 1979, vol.
112. Klass argues that
ufologists, in conducting hypnotic regression sessions,
inadvertently cue their subjects. A close reading of his
text reveals that he never proves or claims that such
"cues" have taken place in any individual instance; he
simply believes that cueing MIGHT have occurred. Had
Klass been more willing to deal with abductees directly,
he might have found evidence of cause and effect; as it
stands, his argument really amounts to no more than a
suggestion. For all that, I find his ideas regarding the
running of "clean" hypnotic regression sessions
113. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR
"THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 34-37.
114. Donald Bain, THE CONTROL
OF CANDY JONES (Chicago, Playboy Press, 1976).
115. The use of hypnotized
couriers in warfare goes back to the 19th century.
116. Estabrooks, HYPNOTISM,
117. John Marks interview
with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks files). In
another interview, Professor Clare Young (a colleague of
Esta- brooks' at Colgate University) confirmed that
Estabrooks' hypnosis work for the government has never
118. Or could her marriage
have been part of the program? "Long John," as he was
popularly known, was famous in UFO circles, and had
provided a forum for such early-day contactees as Howard
Menger. He also knew Jackie Gleason, a prominent (if
unlikely) name in the "crashed disc" rumor vaults. Could
Candy have been assigned to discover what Nebel knew?
119. Marks files. John Marks
did excellent work on the Candy Jones story; he erred --
almost unforgivably -- on the side of conservatism when
he refused to include information about this incident in
his book. I know the name of the institute involved;
however, since Candy saw fit to keep this aspect of her
story secret (probably for sound legal reasons), I shall
follow her lead.
120. Scheflin and Opton, THE
MIND MANIPULATORS, 446-447.
121. Interviews, Marks files.
One of Marks' informants offered the interesting
speculation that Candy's torture sessions were not
conducted in the field, but in the lab -- her entire
mission might have been a hypno- programmed fantasy.
122. The information about
Candy's CIA files stems from a telephone interview with
Candy Jones. A problem looms here: CIA cover stories
unravel like the skin of an onion; once you remove the
outer layer, the next lie is revealed. [For this reason,
I don't think this paper "reveals" the whole truth;
that, I suspect, is far worse. -jpg] In the case of
Candy Jones, the substrata of buncombe involves
allegations that she WILLINGLY complied with the CIA,
and used Jensen's hypnosis experiments as a
rationalization for her compliance. Such is the
explanation offered by certain of Marks' informants;
alas, Opton and Scheflin seem to have bought this line.
Anyone familiar with the vile acts of self-degradation
to which Candy's programmers subjected her will laugh
this story out of court. No one, short of a severely
psychotic masochist, would willingly undergo what she
123. Marks files.
124. William Kroger, CLINICAL
AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS (Philadelphia: Lippincott,
125. Recently, ufologist Jim
Moseley, an acquaintance of Candy's, has claimed that an
unidentified source on Nebel's "inner circle" once,
off-the- record, pronounced Candy's story "a crock."
This assertion deserves careful and respectful
consideration. Still, Moseley won't identify his source,
and we have no way of telling if this insider spoke from
instinct or certain knowledge, or indeed, what he really
meant. Did he feel Candy was fantasizing or fibbing? If
the former, why did her hallucinations match details of
MKULTRA released only after publication of her book? If
the latter, how are we to explain the many hypnotic
regression tapes, at least some of which were made
available to outside investigators? (Fairly elaborate,
for a hoax.) In any case, how could Candy have known the
fact (confirmed by Marks' associates) that Kroger taught
"Jensen" at a certain West-coast institute? Why, if the
story was "a crock," would Candy risk libel suits by
naming -- to associates and investigators, if not to the
general public -- real-life hypnotherapists? All in all,
I would suggest that Moseley's "insider" was speaking
glibly, and did not know the true facts. [Or was
127. Ibid., 415.
128. Similar paranoid
outbreaks led to the dissolution of Dr. Richard Neal's
UFO abductee group in Los Angeles, according to a phone
interview I had with Dr. Neal.
129. Affidavit of Dr.
Simpson-Kallas in the case of Sirhan-Sirhan, 1973; see
Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 225.
130. All true MPs have
experienced some form of abuse or trauma, psychological
or physical, during childhood.
131. One was ritually abused
in an occult setting. If I were a "spy- chiatrist"
scouting potential fodder for mind control experiments,
I would seek out abused children from military families.
(A military background would ensure that the "right"
doctor gets access to the child.) Abduction researchers
should look for such a pattern.
132. I refer here to the vast
upsurge in alien abductions which took place that year;
see generally Kevin Randle, THE OCTOBER SCENARIO (Middle
Coast, 1988). Of course, abductions (or, according to my
hypothesis, disguised mind control operations) occurred
previous to this year.
133. John Marks interview
with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks files).
134. Brenda Butler ET AL.,
SKY CRASH, expanded edition (London: Grafton Books,
1986), 305-321, 354-355.
135. Telephone interview with
136. Telephone interview with
137. William Moore, "UFOs and
the U.S. Government," FOCUS, vol. 4, June 30, 1989.
Moore's role in the affair strikes me as highly
questionable, even scandalous -- although at least here
we have one instance of direct and irrefutable "insider"
testimony of government harassment.
138. Some have also raised
questions about his psychiatric treatment of Oswald
assassin Jack Ruby. I find it odd that a CIA mind
control veteran -- who did NOT reside or practice in
Dallas -- should have been assigned to the Ruby case.
139. Samiel Chavkin, THE MIND
STEALERS (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1978), 96-107.
140. Raymond Fowler, THE
ANDREASSON AFFAIR (New York: Prentice Hall, 1979).
141. New York: Warner Books,
142. Ruth Montgomery, ALIENS
AMONG US (Ballantine, 1985), 49. My article "Psychiatric
Abuse of UFO Witness," referred to earlier, also
documents this phenomenon.
143. Chung-Kwang Chou and
Arthur W. Guy, "Quantization of Microwave Biological
Effects," SYMPOSIUM OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND
MEASUREMENT OF RADIO FREQUENCY/MICROWAVES, edited by
Dewitt G. Hazzard (U.S. Department of Health, Education
and Welfare, 1977).
144. MIAMI HERALD, May 28,
1984 and June 6, 1984; NATIONAL EXAMINER, vol. 22, no.
18, April 30, 1985. Although the EXAMINER is a
supermarket tabloid, and therefore a questionable
source, this periodical has rendered researchers the
service of printing the X-ray of Petit's brain, showing
the implant. [Ever heard of airbrushing? -jpg]
145. Los Angeles TIMES, March
146. Raymond Fowler, THE
ANDREASSON AFFAIR, PHASE TWO (Reward, 1982). This book
includes rare photographs of the unmarked helicopters
which have plagued this abduction victim and her family.
147. A mutual friend
described for me an incident in which the former SEAL,
mistakenly perceiving a threat, almost instantly felled,
and nearly killed, a man twice his size. Whatever the
truth of my informant's other statements, he certainly
has received advanced combat training.
148. Fenton Bresler, WHO
KILLED JOHN LENNON? (New York: St. Martin's Press,
149. Bowart, OPERATION MIND
150. Denise Winn, THE
MANIPULATED MIND (London, Octagon Press, 1983), 72-73;
Bresler, WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON?, 41; see generally:
Peter Watson, WAR ON THE MIND (London: Hutchison, 1978)
(Watson broke the story on Narut for the London TIMES).
151. Larry Collins, "Mind
Control," PLAYBOY, January 1990.
152. John Marks interview
with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks files).
153. Richard A. Gabriel, NO
MORE HEROES (New York: Hill and Wang, 1987), 124.
154. Ibid., 150-151.
155. See generally: Mark
Lane, CONVERSATIONS WITH AMERICANS (Simon and Shuster,
1970); A.J. Langguth, HIDDEN TERRORS (New York:
156. John G. Fuller, THE
INTERRUPTED JOURNEY (New York: Dell, 1966).
157. This detail plays a part
in other abductions -- for example, it crops up in the
Betty Andreasson Luca case. See Raymond Fowler, THE
ANDREASSON AFFAIR (New York: Bantam, 1980), 50-51.
158. Stanton Friedman, for
example; the reader is referred to his 1988 Whole Life
Expo lecture, "UFOs: A Cosmic Watergate."
159. THE BODY ELECTRIC,
160. The Fish map has
received wide discussion; for a representative sampling,
the reader is directed to the aforementioned Friedman
lecture (note 158); Terence Dickenson, "The Zeti
Reticuli Incident," ASTRONOMY, December, 1974; Klass,
UFO ABDUCTIONS: A DANGEROUS GAME, 20-23; and John
Rimmer, THE EVIDENCE FOR ALIEN ABDUCTIONS
(Weillingborough: Aquarian, 1984), 88-92. Incidentally,
Klass has proposed to Friedman a test regarding the
ability to recall such material accurately under
hypnotic regression; Friedman, for reasons best known to
himself, declined the offer to participate.
161. Jacques Vallee,
DIMENSIONS (Chicago: Contemporary, 1988), 266.
162. See Rimmer, THE EVIDENCE
FOR ALIEN ABDUCTIONS, 91-92. None of this is meant to
denigrate Marjorie Fish, whose work has received
163. Fuller, THE INTERRUPTED
164. Athan G. Theoharis and
John Stuart Cox, THE BOSS: J. EDGAR HOOVER AND THE GREAT
AMERICAN INQUISITION (Philadelphia: Temple University
Press, 1978), 325; Chip Berlet, "The Hunt for the Red
Menace," COVERT ACTION INFORMATION BULLETIN, no. 31
(winter, 1989); J. Edgar Hoover, COINTELPRO (memo),
March 4, 1968.
165. For example, Delgado's
work pre-dates the Hill incident. Moreover, one of the
few pages released on MKULTRA subproject 119 concerns "a
critical review of the literature and scientific
developments related to the recording, analysis and
interpretation of bioelectric signals from the human
organism, and activation of human behavior by remote
means." The review took place in 1960-61. Presumably,
the CIA wanted to DO something with the information so
166. "UFO Abductions
Workshop," Whole Life Expo, March, 1988. 167. Ludwig
Mayer, DIE TECHNIC DER HYPNOSE (Munich: J.H. Lehmanns
Verlag, 1953), 225; quoted in: Heinz E. Hammerschlag
(translation: John Cohen) HYPNOTISM AND CRIME
(Hollywood: Wilshire Book Company, 1957), 24-25.
168. Numerous articles
discuss this possibility; see, for example, William C.
Coe ET AL. "An Approach Toward Isolating Factors that
Influence Antisocial Conduct in Hypnosis," THE
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL
HYPNOSIS, 1972, vol XX, no. 2, 118-131, as well as other
reports in that issue. The difference between the
laboratory and the "field" settings may account for the
success of Mayer's experiment and the apparent failure
of the "aliens." [Or perhaps Hopkins' informant REALIZED
he was in Miniluv and his autonomy was on the line; he
reacted against this standard Gestapo procedure as best
he could: by turning the gun on O'Brien. -jpg]
169. For a description of a
quite similar experiment conducted under CIA auspices in
1954, see "CIA able to control minds by hypnosis, data
shows," THE WASHINGTON POST, February 19, 1978.
170. Abductee interview,
"Veronica." The reader will, I hope, forgive my use of a
pseudonym here. For the most part, I hope to deal in
this work with published cases. Suffice it to say,
Veronica's testimony proved fascinating, troubling,
convoluted, problematical; in spite of all the questions
raised by this case, I still believe it to have
substantial bearing on my thesis. The reader will
forgive me for severing relations with this abductee
before completing an investigation; she keeps a
mini-armory next to her bed.
171. Abductee interview,
"Veronica," At one point, she ran an informal
abductee/contactee group; as a result, she was able to
describe many other cases to me. [Pseudomemories
programmed into her? -jpg]
172. One ARTICHOKE document
explicitly details a failed attempt to use hypnosis to
induce the assassination of a foreign leader. The
document is undated; the experiment took place January
8-January 15, 1954. Document reproduced in CIA PAPERS,
vol. 1 (Ann Arbor, MI: Capitol Information Associates,
173. John Marks interview of
Prof. Jack Tracktir (Marks files).
174. Jenny Randles,
ABDUCTIONS (London: Robert Hale, 1988), 52-53.
175. As in, for example, the
Palle Hardrup affair.
176. Private correspondence,
Robert Durant to the author.
177. Abductee interview,
"Polly." I won't give the facial details here; suffice
it to say that this abductor, like Margary's (noted
earlier), has something of the smell of greasepaint
178. The base is mentioned in
Ann Druffel's and D. Scott Rogo's THE TUJUNGA CANYON
CONTACTS (New York: Signet, 1989) [expanded edition],
179. On the other hand,
Armstrong asks us to accept his own channeled material,
so he would have an awkward time should he choose to
challenge the "psychic impressions" of others.
180. Jacques Vallee,
MESSENGERS OF DECEPTION (Berkeley: And/Or Press, 1979),
181. Curtis G. Fuller
(editor), PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL UFO
CONGRESS (New York: Warner Books, 1980), 307.
182. For information of
Pelley, see John Roy Carlson, UNDER COVER (New York:
183. Gerald B. Bryan, PSYCHIC
DICTATORSHIP IN AMERICA (Los Angeles: Truth Research,
1940). An essential book-length expose of Ballardism.
One of Bryan's sources alleges that Ballard, before
founding the I AM group, may have practiced some variety
of black magic.
184. The student should
carefully compare the I AM dogma with the available
information on pre-Third Reich occultism; the best
sources are James Webb's masterful analyses, THE OCCULT
ESTABLISHMENT and THE OCCULT UNDERGROUND (La Salle,
Illinois: Open Court Publishing, 1976).
185. Vallee, MESSENGERS OF
186. Even a cursory
examination of Williamson's SECRET OF THE ANDES (London:
Neville Superman, 1961), written under the pseudonym
Brother Philip, will reveal the I AM connections.
187. Personal sources. Van
Tassell's "Integration," a domed structure allegedly
built under extra-terrestrial guidance (located near 29
Palms, California) prominently displays, to this day,
key I AM artifacts such as the portraits of Jesus and
Saint Germain (commissioned by Ballard).
188. "The Afghan Arms
Pipeline," COVERT ACTION INFORMATION BULLETIN, no. 30
189. Telephone interview with
190. Village of Oak Creek,
Arizona: Entheos, 1989, 119. I can't recall ever
encountering another book title which contained so many
grammatical errors. Armstrong's accomplishment is
191. For further information
on I AM, Prophet's organization, saucer cults, and other
groups, see the appropriate sections of J. Gordon
Melton's ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN RELIGION.
192. Ruth Montgomery, ALIENS
AMONG US (New York: Ballantine, 1985), 128-188.
193. Penny Harper, "Are
Aliens Taking Over the Earth?" WHOLE LIFE TIMES, January
194. John Keel, WHY UFOS:
OPERATION TROJAN HORSE (New York: Manor Books, 1970)
[paperback edition], 228.
195. Hickson and Mendez, UFO
CONTACT AT PASCAGOULA, 242.
196. Strieber, COMMUNION,
134; TRANSFORMATION, 109.
197. "Contactee: Firsthand,"
UFO magazine, vol. 4, no. 2, 1989.
198. Telephone conversation,
199. Ed Conroy, REPORT ON
COMMUNION (New York: William Morrow, 1989), 365-385.
200. "Contactee: Firsthand,"
UFO magazine, vol. 3, no. 3.
201. New York: Zebra, 1971.
See especially note 2, Chap. 9.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MIND
ACID DREAMS, by Martin A. Lee
and Bruce Shlain (Grove, 1985). Outstanding work on
MKULTRA and drugs.
THE BODY ELECTRIC, by Robert
Becker (Morrow, 1985). Important.
THE BRAIN CHANGERS, by Maya
Pines (Signet, 1973). Outdated, but an excellent chapter
on the stimoceiver and related technologies.
BRAIN CONTROL, by Elliot
Valenstein (John Wiley and Sons, 1973). Highly
conservative; outdated; still worth reading.
CIA PAPERS, compiled by
Capitol Information Associates (POB 8275, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, 48107). Interesting selection of MKULTRA
THE CONTROL OF CANDY JONES,
by Donald Bain (Playboy Press, 1976). Mandatory reading.
HUMAN DRUG TESTING BY THE
CIA, hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and
Scientific Research on the Committee on Human Resources,
United States Senate (Government Printing Office, 1977).
HYPNOTISM, by George
Estabrooks (Dutton, 1957). See especially the chapters
on hypnosis in warfare and crime. Some modern experts in
clinical hypnosis decry Estabrooks' work. These
"experts" tend to have a history of funding by CIA
cut-outs and military intelligence. I suspect they
denounce Estabrooks not because his work was shoddy, but
because he let the cat out of the bag.
INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND THE
FEDERAL ROLE IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, by the Staff of
the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the
Committee of the Judiciary, United States Senate
(Government Printing Office, 1974).
MEGABRAIN, by Michael
Hutchison (Ballantine, 1986). The only popular book on
modern mind machines.
MESSENGERS OF DECEPTION, by
Jacques Vallee (And/Or, 1979). Vallee has been
criticized, correctly, for including in this book
invented "conversations" with a composite character he
calls Major Murphy. But the section on cults in this
book bears a haunting resemblance to stories I have
heard in my own investigations.
THE MIND MANIPULATORS, by
Opton and Scheflin (Paddington Press, 1978).
Conservative, but extremely useful as a reference work.
MIND WARS, by Ronald McCrae
(St. Martin's Press, 1984).
OPERATION MIND CONTROL, by
Walter Bowart (Dell, 1978). The best single volume on
the subject. Difficult to find; indeed, this book's
rapid disappearance from bookstores and libraries has
aroused the suspicions of some researchers. (Tom David
Books, POB 1107, Aptos, CA 95001, carries this work.)
PHYSICAL CONTROL OF THE MIND,
by Jose Delgado (Harper and Row, 1969). Outdated but
PROJECT MKULTRA, joint
hearing before the Select Committee on Health and
Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources,
United States Senate (Government Printing Office, 1977).
PSYCHIC WARFARE: FACT OR
FICTION? edited by John White (Aquarian, 1988). See
especially Michael Rossman's contribution.
PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY, Robert L.
Schwitzgebel and Ralph K. Schwitzgebel (Holt, Rhinehart
and Winston, 1973).
THE SCIENTIST, by John Lilly
(expanded edition: Ronin, 1988). Bizarre -- Lilly is an
ex-"brainwashing" specialist who claims to be in contact
with aliens. Is he controlled or controlling?
THE SEARCH FOR "THE
MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", by John Marks (Bantam, 1978). An
invaluable book. However, many people have made the
mistake of assuming it tells the full story. It does
WERE WE CONTROLLED? by
Lincoln Lawrence (University Books, 1967). Explores
possible connections to the JFK assassination. Dr.
Petter Lindstrom's endorsement of this work makes it
WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON? by
Fenton Bresler (St. Martin's Press, 1989). Interesting
thesis concerning the possible use of mind control on
Mark David Chapman. Better in its analysis of Chapman
than in its history of mind control. In my own work, I
have encountered data which may help confirm Bresler's
THE ZAPPING OF AMERICA, by
Paul Brodeur (MacLeod [Canadian edition], 1976).
Contains a good chapter on microwave mind control
Part 1, 2,