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Water Decomposition by AC Electrolysis
 Dr Andrija Puharich reportedly drove his motor home for hundreds of thousands of miles around North America in the 1970s using only water as fuel. At a mountain pass in Mexico, he collected snow for water. Here is the only article he wrote on thesubject, plus his patent:
Cutting The Gordian Knot of the Great Energy Bind
by Andrija Puharich
 It is hardly necessary to weigh the value of the World Energy bank account for anysophisticated person, these days. It is grim. The oil reserves will dwindle away in ascore of years or so, and the coal reserves will be gone in some twelve score years. (Ref. 1)This is not to say that the outlook is hopeless. There is an abundance of alternativeenergy sources, but the economics of development and exploitation present anenormous short term strain on the world political and banking resources.Visionary scientists tell us that the ideal fuel in the future will be as cheap as water,that it will be non toxic both in its short term, and in its long term, effects, that it will be renewable in that it can be used over and over again, that it will be safe to handle,and present minimal storage and transportation problems and costs. And finally thatit will be universally available anywhere on earth.What is this magical fuel, and why is it not being used? The fuel is water. It can beused in its fresh water form. It can be used in its salt water form. It can be used in its
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 brackish form. It can be used in its snow and ice form. When such water isdecomposed by electrolytic fission into hydrogen and oxygen gases, it becomes ahigh energy fuel with three times the energy output which is available from anequivalent weight of high grade gasoline.(Ref. 1 ) The interested reader should refer to the special issue of 
 National Geographic
, "Energy", February 1981.Then why is water not being used as a fuel? The answer is simple. It costs too muchwith existing technology to convert water into gases hydrogen and oxygen. The basiccycle of using water for fuel is described in the following two equations, familiar toevery high school student of Chemistry:H
O Electrolysis + 249.68 Btu Delta G ==> H
+ (1/2)O
per mole of water (1 mole= 18 gms.). (1)This means that it requires 249.688 Btu of energy (from electricity) to break water  by electrocal fission into the gases hydrogen and oxygen.H
and (1/2)O
=== catalyst ===> H
O - Delta H 302.375 Btu per mole of water.(2)This means that 302.375 Btu of energy (heat or electricity) will be released when thegases, hydrogen and oxygen, combine. The end product (the exhaust) from thisreaction is water. Note that more energy (under ideal conditions) is released fromcombining the gases than is used to free them from water. It is know that under idealconditions it is possible to get some 20% more energy out of reaction (2) above, thenit takes to produce the gases of reaction (1) above. Therefore, if reaction (1) could becarried out at 100% efficiency, the release of energy from reaction (2) in anoptimally efficient engine (such as a low temperature fuel cell), there would be a netenergy profit which would make the use of water as a fuel an economically feasiblesource of energy .The cost of producing hydrogen is directly related to the cost of producingelectricity. Hydrogen as produced today is generally a byproduct of off-peak-hour electrical production in either nuclear or hydroelectric plants. The electricity thus produced is the cheapest way of making hydrogen. We can compare the cost of  production of electricity and the cost of producing hydrogen. The following table isadapted from Penner (Ref. 2) whose data source is based on Federal Power Commission, and American Gas Association Figures of 1970 and on a 1973 priceevaluation (just before OPEC oil price escalation.)Table 1:
 Relative Prices in Dollars per 10
. See Appendix 1 for definition of British Thermal units (a) @ 9.1 mils/kWh
Cost Component ~ Electricity ~ Electrolytically-Produced H 
 Production ~ 2.67 (b) ~ 2.95 to 3.23 (b)Transmission ~ 0.61 ~ 0.52 (c)Distribution ~ 1.61 ~ 0.34Total Cost ~ $4.89 ~ $3.81 to $4.09
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If we compare only the unit cost of production of electricity vs Hydrogen from theabove table:10
Btu H
/ 10
Btu El = $3.23 / $2.67, or 20.9% higher cost, H
 (Ref. 2) Penner, S.S. & L. Iceman:
 Non Nuclear Technologies
, Vol II, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1977, Chap. 11, and Table 11.1-2 (Page 132).It must also be noted that the price of natural gas is much cheaper than either electricity or hydrogen, but because of the price fluctuations due to recentderegulation of gas. It is not possible to present a realistic figure.In the opinion of Penner (op. cit.), if the hydrogen production cost component of itstotal cost could be reduced three fold, it would become a viable alternate energysource. In order to achieve such a three-fold reduction in production costs, severalmajor breakthroughs would have to occur.(1) ENDERGONIC REACTION ~ (1) supra. A technological breakthrough that permits 100% conversion efficiency of water by electrolysis fission into the twogases, Hydrogen as fuel and Oxygen as oxidant.(2) HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, in situ. A technological breakthrough thateliminates the need and cost of hydrogen liquefaction and storage, transmission, anddistribution, by producing the fuel in situ, when and where needed.(3) EXERGONIC REACTION ~ (2) supra. A technological breakthrough whichyields a 100% efficient energy release from the combination of hydrogen and oxygeninto water in an engine that can utilize the heat, steam, or electricity thus produced.(4) ENGINE EFFICIENCY. By a combination of the breakthroughs outlined above,(1), (2), and (3) utilized in a highly efficient engine to do work, it is possible toachieve a 15% to 20% surplus of energy return over energy input, theoretically.It is of interest to record that a new invention is now being developed to realise theabove outlined goal of cheap, clean renewable and high grade energy.A Thermodynamic Device has been invented which produces hydrogen as fuel, andoxygen as oxidant, from ordinary or from sea water, eliminating the cost and hazardof liquefaction, storage, transmission, and distribution. The saving of this aspect of the invention alone reduces the total cost of hydrogen by about 25%.This Thermodynamic Device is based on a new discovery --- the efficientelectrolytic fission of water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas by the use of lowfrequency alternating currents as opposed to the conventual use of direct current, or ultra-high frequency current today. Such gas production from water by electrolyticfission approaches 100% efficiency under laboratory conditions and measurements. No laws of physics are violated in this process.This Thermodynamic Device has already been tested at ambient pressures andtemperatures from sea level to an altitude of 10,000 feet above sea level without any
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loss of its peak efficiency. The device produces two types of gas bubbles; one type of  bubble contains hydrogen gas; the other type contains oxygen gas. The two gases arethereafter easily separable by passive membrane filters to yield pure hydrogen gas,and pure oxygen gas.The separate gases are now ready to be combined in a chemical fusion with a smallactivation energy such as that from a catalyst or an electrical spark, and yield energyin the form of heat, or steam, or electricity --- as needed .When the energy is released by the chemical fusion of hydrogen and oxygen, the exhaust product is clean water.The water exhaust can be released into nature and then renewed in its energy content by natural processes of evaporation, solar irradiation in cloud form, an subsequent precipitation as rain on land or sea, and then collected again as a fuel source. Or, theexhaust water can have its energy content pumped up by artificial processes such asthrough solar energy acting through photocells. Hence, the exhaust product is bothclean and renewable. The fuel hydrogen, and the oxidant oxygen, can be used in anyform of heat engine as an energy source if economy is not an important factor. Butthe practical considerations of maximum efficiency dictate that a low temperaturefuel cell with its direct chemical fusion conversion from gases to electricity offersthe greatest economy and efficiency from small power plants (less than 5 kilowatts).For large power plants, steam and gas turbines are the ideal heat engines for economy and efficiency. With the proper engineering effort, automobiles could beconverted rather easily to use water as the main fuel source.(2)
 A Elementry Introduction to the Design & Operation of the Thermodynamic Device to Electrolyse Water with AC 
~The Thermodynamic Device (TD) is made up of three principal components: Anelectrical function generator, Component I, that energizes a water cell, the TD,Component II and Component III , a weak electrolyte.COMPONENT I: The Electrical Function Generator ~ See Fig 1.
Figure 1: Signal Generator Component Block ~ 
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