from BlackHoles Website
holes in cosmic bodies
of earthly mass spectrum
holes in the Earth
registration of terrestrial black holes
issues on terrestrial black holes radiation
manifestations near the terrestrial surface
of planetary scale
given is the first monographic research on the problem of black
holes (otons) in the Earth.
A wide spectrum
of phenomena is considered to be connected with the terrestrial otons,
starting from the instant human self-ignition up to catastrophic planet
explosions. A possibility of predicting natural catastrophes of sea ships,
tankers, aircrafts; accidents at the electric power stations, oil and gas
pipelines and other technogenic objects is considered.
The methods of
such cataclysms prevention are discussed. New otonic energy sources and
new ways of exploring the giant oil deposits nearby megapolicies are
concluded, that by discovering inexhaustible energy sources and infinite
riches of underground pantries, the black hole era can be the epoch of
unprecedented power and prosperity of humankind both on the Earth and in
I.1. The creators of nuclear
century were the founders of science of black holes (otons)
Special Relativity the nuclear source of energy, which has denominated our
century, was discovered, within the framework of General Relativity
(GR) the otonic source of
energy was predicted. It was happened that the scientists who have made
our century nuclear stood at origins of black hole
GR in 1915 more than twenty years has passed till the moment, when
J.R.Oppenheimer (the father of American nuclear bomb) with the
employees has made a conclusion about the opportunity of formation during
the star evolution of objects [Оп00], named later by black holes.
Wheeler, the scientific adviser of American presidents in the nuclear
program, has not only introduced in 1967 the very term "black hole"
[Wh00], but also has created the American school of "black hole
and his employees' works the interest to black holes in scientific world
has sharply increased. By efforts of Ya.B. Zel'dovich, one of the soviet
nuclear bomb creators, the school of "black hole scientists" was founded
attributed a half-playful phrase, told at the gravitational conference in
are everywhere, where the opposite has not been proved".
Sakharov, the winner of the Nobel prize and "the father" of soviet
hydrogen bomb, developed interest to black holes as to sources of
sub-Plankian particles, which are the test for the validity of Great
I.2. Astrophysics of black
Soon after its
creation by А.Einstein, GR has been used for describing the
The model of
"the expanding Universe", created on the basis of GR by А.А.Friedman in
1922-1924, was then essentially complemented with the idea of "the hot
Universe " by G.Gamov. This prediction within GR of the object ("the
expanding hot Universe"), which was new for science, was excellently
confirmed by the discovery of relic radiation made by А.A.Penzias and
R.W.Wilson in 1965.
fundamental objects of GR (black holes) were predicted in works of
S.Chandrasekhar, J.R.Oppenheimer and H.Snyder in the first half of ХХth
century. Many brilliant theorists were engaged in theoretical
investigations of black holes: S.Hawking, R.Penrose, R.Ruffini, M.Rees,
А.Salam, K.Thorn, S.Weinberg, J.А.Wheeler and others.
essentially important event in verifying the astrophysical reality of
black holes was the discovery in 1967 of pulsars by A.Hewish with
the employees [He00,1], i.e., of rotating neutron stars, which by their
parameters are the closest objects to black holes. For the discovery of
pulsars Anthony Hewish was awarded in 1974 by the Nobel prize.
importance of neutron star discovery for science speaks also the fact that
for the further researches of pulsars, which have confirmed predictions of
GR [Hu00,1; Ta00], the American scientists Joseph Taylor and Russel Hulse
were awarded in 1992 by the Nobel prize as well.
are important for black hole astrophysics because they are the last stage
in stellar matter evolution on its irreversible way to black holes. A
conclusion about the black hole existence in nature is so correct, as GR
itself is correct.
astrophysics of black holes have received wide recognition in scientific
world, so the awarding of the American scientist S.Chandrasekhar
for the cycle of works on star evolution leading to formation of black
holes by the Nobel prize in 1983 was the reflection of this fact [
I.3. Single small black holes as
relics of the Big Bang
The idea of
"lagged cores" suggested in 1964-1965 by I.D.Novikov [Но00,1] and
Yu.Ne'eman [Ne00] for constructing the white hole model was the impetus to
develop the second way of black hole formation.
Ya.B.Zel'dovich and I.D.Novikov [Зе01], and then in 1971 S.Hawking [Ha00],
have proposed the second way of black hole origin in the result of
inhomogeneouties formation at the early stages of cosmological expansion.
Such the black holes have been called the primordial (relic) black holes.
They can possess different masses, both more, and less the solar one, down
to Plankian value (10-5 g).
Since in the
Hawking's work the idea of small black holes at once was associated with
some astrophysical phenomena (for example, deficiency of solar neutrino),
it was the work which the wide discussion of this problem begins
have been undertaken to detect experimentally explosions of black holes
through optical flares [Po00,1], [Bh00], [Je00], radiobursts [Re00],
[Bl20] and gamma-bursts [Po01]. Researches of the micro-black hole
radiation spectrum [Pa01,2], [Ma00,1], [Ol00], the А.D.Sakharov's idea on
micro-black holes as sources of Plankian particles for verifying theories
of Unification [Са20], and on cosmological consequences of black hole
evaporation [Ca00,1,2,3] were important in theoretical respect.
result of these investigations is that:
black holes exist, then average density of their substance in the
Universe is less than critical one in many orders.
for this reason the presence of primordial black holes in the Earth has
been considered as impossible.
gravitational manifestation of single small black holes in their coming
through the Earth does not result in significant effects because of their
large velocity [Gr00], [Bl10].
attempt to connect terrestrial phenomena with extraterrestrial black holes
was the Jackson and Ryan's work "Was the Tungus event due to a black
hole?" [Ja00], which has caused
objections too [Be00].
difficulties of idea of small black holes are removed in the conception of
otonic worlds [Тр00-16], in which black holes are considered not as
abstract single objects, but as initial centers of all space bodies
formation [Тр00,11]. Within the framework of approach given the question
on black hole seizure by space bodies is eliminated, for they initially
are in space bodies, being their germs.
of intraplanetary, intraterrestrial black holes has resulted in a
number of investigative directions [Тр00-16], [Ас00] within otonic
geophysics, successfully deciding a number of Earth's physics
I.4. Geophysics of black holes
A problem of
energy sources (as well as a problem of "hidden" mass) stands sharply not
only in astrophysics, but also in physics of planets [Hu10] and the Earth
problem consists not in amount of energy, but in mechanisms of its
localization in comparatively small volumes [Тр07].
The idea of
intraterrestrial black holes within the otonic worlds conception
has obtained wide development for interpreting geophysical phenomena
explanation of volcano's energetics and other geophysical phenomena the
model of micro-black holes was suggested to make use [Тр00-11]. In this
model the problem of energy localization is easily decided, since the
source of energy (micro-black holes) is a dot, i.e., "a hot point".
The flow of
neutrino from black holes has a unique spectrum (it consists of six
neutrino types equipower flows with the same energy) and can be registered
by modern equipment.
of catastrophic explosions of volcanoes is noted to coincide by the order
of magnitude with the energy of exploding black holes [Тр11]. The question
on registration of high energy neutrino from exploding black holes [Tr05]
variations of gravitational potential derivatives (otonic gravi-impulses),
produced by otons moving in the Earth, are described. Expressions for
different gravitational potential derivatives, produced by otons [Тр11],
[Tr04,6] are given. Experiments on registration of otonic gravi-impulses
have been carried out with modern gravimetric devices (gravimeters and variometers) [Tr06,8].
case a wide circle of unusual phenomena is connected with terrestrial
otons: from instant person's transforming in ash to catastrophic explosion
of the planet at all [Тр09,11]. A number of ideas having received
development in the given book are voiced, which is the first monographic
investigation of the terrestrial black hole problem.
expresses special gratitude to I.I. Naumenko-Bondarenko and V.V. Butazov
for their help in realization of gravimetric experiments; O.L. Artemenko,
V.S. Gurin, V.М. Golub, V.V. Mityanok, А.G. Parkhomov, S.I. San'ko, N.G.
Silko for the realizing of joint researches on problems of terrestrial
The author is
grateful to А. Penzias, А. Salam, J.А. Wheeler, А. Hewish, C. Rubbia, M.
Rees, V.P. Vizgin, А.I. Volgina, А.А. Grib, D.G. Gridnev, V.I. Dokuchayev,
I.G. Dymnikova, Ju.N. Efremov, G.M. Idlis, V.М. Mostepanenko, А.А.
Starobinski, K.I. Churyumov for interest to the problem of black holes in
space bodies; to M.J. Fogg for sending of prints of works about
intrastellar black holes [Fo00,1], and J. Gribbin for a benevolent-ironic
response [Gr10] on the article [Tr00].
The author is
grateful to the department of logic and methodology of scientific
cognition of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for a creative
atmosphere promoting a spelling of the given book.
At last, the
author expresses gratitude to all participants of a seminar of
astronomical section of Minsk department of VAGO for discussions and
interest to the given problem.
(The bottom page Bibliography is ordered
alphabetically. In references to bibliography four symbols are indicated
in the text (in brackets): first two symbols mean first letters of a
surname (or a title), two last symbols are numerals (the choice is
determined by convenience and correctness of identification with the
source from alphabetic list of bibliography; references to bibliography in
Russian are marked by italic style). In the book the three-signs
numeration of formulas, pictures and tables is taken (the first numeral is
a chapter number, the second one is a section number, and the third one is
a number inside a section).
1 - Cosmogony of
Before discussing the
problem of otons (black holes) in the Earth's
physics it is necessary first to provide a definition of the term and
answer, at least, two questions.
first: it is a must to find out how otons of small masses can be
second, the question should to be answered: in what ways otons appear
in space bodies and in the Earth?
The answer to
the first question is given in the first chapter, and the answer to the
second one is given in the second chapter.
The term "otons" was
discussing introduced in 1971 by Ya.B.Zel'dovich and I.D.Novikov
in the book "The Theory of Gravitation and the Evolution of Stars"
"as a generic
name uniting all the variety of bodies with the relativistic field of
gravitation which are inside the so called "horizon" or asymptotically
come close to it".
grey holes and other relativistic objects predicted within the General
Relativity (GR) are referred to otons. In the book the term "otons" is
often used just as a synonym of the term "black
1.1. Schwarzschild black
the modern relativistic theory of gravitation (General
Gim = and (Tim - 1/2gimT)
by Einstein in 1915. And the next year the first exact solution of
Einstein equations for the point mass was found by K.Schwarzschild. The
Schwarzschild solution is written in the metric form which has served for
the basis in constructing models of simplest spherical symmetric
where Rg =
2GMc-2 - gravitational radius, Ì - black hole mass, c - speed
of light, G - gravitational constant.
A sphere drawn
with the gravitational radius is for a Schwarzschild black hole a surface
of infinite red shift and the event horizon. For estimating sizes of
stellar mass black holes the formula is convenient:
where M o -
mass of the Sun equal to 2*1033 ã, Ro -
gravitational radius of the Sun equal to 3*105 sm. To small
black holes it is possible to refer ones of masses in the bounds of
1020 g < Mâí < Mo and, accordingly, of sizes
in the bounds of 10-8 sm < Rg < 3*105 sm. The
bottom limit is defined by the value of the order of atomic sizes. For
black holes with Ì < 1020 g quantum effects of evaporation
become appreciable and such black holes should be referred to micro-black
holes. The black hole substance density is estimated by the
ro = 1,85 1016 g.sm-3 is the solar mass
black hole substance density. It is evident from (1.1.4.) that the
substance density of small and micro-black holes is more in many orders
than substance densities of known forms of matter, and black holes
themselves with respect to space bodies are with sufficient accuracy
gravitational material points described by the Newtonian law of
Effects of GR,
for example, in the micro-black hole case, become appreciable at the
scales less than atomic ones. Nevertheless, though micro-black holes are
located in atomic volumes they can give effects at the macro-level
compared with ones from space bodies.
So, at the
(MBH/MÅ )1/2 RÅ
the force of
attraction caused by the black hole is equal to the gravitational force at
the Earth's surface (MÅ - mass of the Earth, RÅ -
radius of the Earth). The black hole with M = 1,47*1020 g will
create at the distance of one kilometer the same force of gravitation as
the Earth, i.e., it will cause considerable but rather localized
In accordance with the Hawking effect
black holes radiate particles like a black body with temperature [Ha01,2]:
(1.1.5) during the time t ~ 1010 (M/1015) years. At
the last stage of black hole evaporation the explosion happens, in which
the energy of 1030 erg is extracted in 0,1 s. This is the insignificant
energy in comparison with stellar energetics (luminosity of the Sun is
3,8*1033 erg.s-1), but it is rather considerable
amounts for planet energetics (thermal flow from the Earth's interiors is
Small black holes move in
substance of space bodies as if in emptiness.
considering black holes in space bodies it should be involved the idea of
otons as universal centers of forming all the space objects [Тр00,9,11].
In addition in space objects there can be not only central germinal black
holes, but also others. So, for example, planetesimals, of which falling
onto the proto-Earth "germ" is considered to have resulted in formation of
the modern Earth, can also contain germinal black holes. In other words,
not single black holes, but space bodies containing black holes are
discussing the problem of black holes in the Earth it is necessary to find
out how are black holes formed in general case, to which next sections of
this chapter are devoted.
evolving the irreversible process of energy loss runs. On exhausting the
stellar nuclear energy source the poststar is formed.
By the term
"poststar" are meant space objects being the final product of stellar
evolution (white dwarves, neutron stars, black holes).
whole the process of increasing deepening of gravitational potential
"holes" is characteristic for the substance of classical astrophysical
objects. This is connected with an irreversible nature of energy loss in
the radiation form by space objects, which leads to increasing the sum of
connection energy of closed space system and body substance.
As a result the
sum of connection energy of the closed system substance does not decrease.
This is a formulation of the closed system substance connection energy
non-decreasing principle. Such the formulation can be assimilated to the
second principle of thermodynamics.
Due to the principle of
connection energy non-decreasing the black hole formation seems to be the
natural and inevitable stage of evolution. The conclusion on the black
hole existence in nature is so correct, as far as correct GR itself.
formation of black holes with masses less than mass of the Sun was
considered for a long time as problematic.
1.3. Relics of the Big Bang
version of black hole formation is connected with the idea on white holes
proposed in 1964-1965 in I.D. Novikov's [Но00,1] and Yu.
Ne’eman [Ne00] works, who have suggested the hypothesis of "lagged
this idea at the initial stage of Metagalactic expansion the substance
expanding was retarded in some regions and the substance has not left the
gravitational radius. The so called "lagged cores" have been
For some reasons, the first attempt to understand a nature
of white hole formation has appeared unsuccessful, but the idea of
"lagged cores" was an incitement to developing the second way of
black hole’s formation.
In 1967 Ya.B.
Zel'dovich and I.D. Novikov [Зе10], and then in 1971. S. Hawking [Ha00]
have proposed the second way of black hole’s formation as a result of
possible inhomogeneities at early stages of cosmological expansion. Such
the black holes have received the name of primordial (relic) black holes.
They can have various masses, both more, and less the solar
Since in the Hawking work the idea of small black holes at
once was connected with some astrophysical phenomena (in particular, with
the deficiency of solar neutrino), it is the work with which the wide
discussion of the primordial black hole problem begins.
relic otons are formed at the initial stage of the Big Bang under quite
certain conditions, namely, under large density and temperatures during
very short time, there are restrictions on their number and general mass.
If the primordial black holes exist, the average density of their
substance in the Universe is in many orders less than the critical one.
Just only for this reason the presence of relic black holes with small
masses in the Earth is improbable.
difficulties in an explanation of the black and white hole origins have
forced resorting to the idea of transmetagalactic oton origin from
1.4. Kerr-Newman space-time and
metric is the theoretical basis of transmetagalactic oton models
construction (black and white holes).
In the oblate
quasi-spheroidal Boyer-Lindquist coordinates it is written in the
following form [Ми10] (here the geometrized units are used, c = G =
where M is the
total mass of oton, Q is its charge, a is the angular momentum of rotation
per unit mass.
In a general case for the Kerr-Newman metric there
are several mismatched pseudo-singular surfaces. Surfaces of event horizon
for the metric (1.4.1) are defined by the expression (here and further in
usual units, if it is not stipulated the opposite):
where R+ is the
external event horizon, R- is the inner one.
Surfaces of infinite
shifts are defined as follows:
determined by r+ is called the infinite red-shift surface, r- does
the infinite blue-shift one.
pseudo-singular surfaces make the structure of the extended space-time
manifold (ESTM) non-trivial. In the case of a Kerr oton (Ì 0, and 0, Q =
Î) the picture qualitatively does not vary. In the case of not rotating
oton (a = 0, Q 0, Ì 0) the picture qualitatively changes, since from
(1.4.2) and (1.4.3) r + = R +, r _ = R _, i.e., event horizon surfaces
coincide with the corresponding infinite shifts surfaces. Thus, the
condition a = 0 makes the ESTM structure more poor.
Finally, for a
Schwarzschild oton there is one pseudo-singular surface: r+ = R+ = Rg (Rg
is the gravitational radius):
peculiar surface (r- = R- = 0) coincides with the point of true
The most realistic model of an otonic white hole is
associated with the Kerr ESTM, because all known astrophysical
objects possess rotation. Let us consider the Penrose diagram for the
Kerr ESTM along the symmetry axis [Õî00] (fig. 1.4.1.), that can give the
qualitative representation on the global structure of ESTM.
into account results of extended relativity it is possible to designate an
arbitrary region of the Kerr ESTM Ì., which is separated from another by
event horizons, by the general symbol [Òð03]:
M (k, P)
where P = (i)N.
N is the number of event horizons separating arbitrary region Ì from
on originate Ì(+), - < k < + . Since k is not restricted, there can
be the unlimited number of regions by the type of Ì. Each such region can
be an independent world, which is similar to our
Anticollapsing objects in similar ESTM are formed in
the results of relativistic collapse-anticollapse process from black hole
matter, which flows (see fig. 1.4.1.) through wormholes from one Ì (0, +),
Ì (0, i) ESTM region (otonic world) to another Ì (1, -i), Ì (1, +). The
cause of transformation of collapse to anticollapse for the Kerr oton
consists in rotation, which at a certain stage of contraction of oton,
namely, in the region Ì (0, ' -) at R = R =
a2/c2Rb, leads to expansion.
in white hole concept we should go from the Schwarzschild STM to the Kerr
ESTM, which naturally explains the nature of anticollapse and leads to the
notion on non-trivial ESTM structure and on worlds variety.
the second possible way of the white hole origin and the third way of
black hole formation as relics of grey holes, which were proposed in
1973-1978 within the idea of otonic worlds variety in the
multi-dimensional Universe (otonic scenario) [Òð00].
On the Penrose
diagram of the Kerr STM (see fig. 1.4.1.) there can be the unlimited
number of regions by the type of M(+). An independent otonic world
corresponds to each such region, which is similar to our Metagalaxy.
Though, it is necessary to notice, that any region Ì(+) of STM must be not
the asymptotically flat space-time, but the curved Friedman world,
If the expansion of anticollapsar stops at the
event horizon the black hole will be formed. Such the black hole is the
grey hole relic, which matter is originated from other regions of extended
STM. The time of grey hole manifestation at the stage of anticollapse is
extremely small. On stopping anticollapse they become black holes.
black holes can possess different masses and arise at any stage of
Fig. 1.4.1. The Penrose diagram for the extended along the
symmetry axis Kerr STM. The broken line marks the ring singularity.
The stencil picture Ì(++) including regions Ì(++), Ì (-), Ì(i), Ì ('
-), Ì(- '), and Ì(-i) is repeated unlimitedly to the both sides. When
k ® ¥ we optain the complete Kerr manifold. Curves show possible
geodesics (time-like), which correspond to black hole, BH; white hole,
WH; grey hole, GH; dark grey hole, DGH; light grey hole,
of white (or grey) hole flares would be the confirmation of the idea on
worlds variety in the multidimensional Universe. If gamma-bursts are
connected with grey hole flares, bursts of gravitational radiation can be
predicted to be observed synchronously with gamma-bursts.
grey holes from other otonic worlds, causing extreme disturbances of STM
and the gravitational field, should lead to powerful short-term
bursts of gravitational radiation and electromagnetic waves. Therefore any
grandiose processes in this point of the heavenly sphere after the
radiation burst should not be expected, since the grey hole relic can be a
single black hole.
of synchronism of gravitational and gamma-bursts would be decisive
argument for the discovery of white and grey hole flares
White holes, unlike grey holes, can manifest themselves
after the short-term powerful radiation burst as grandiose space
explosions. In this respect it is of interest the Supernovae - 1987À, when
the large burst of gravitational radiation was registered
1.5. Other ways of black hole
otonic worlds concept considered above, in which there are no restrictions
on the time of space object existence, black holes in the far future of
Metagalaxy can reduce their masses up to any values due to quantum
One more way of mini-black hole formation through the
condensation of poorly interacting massive particles in neutron stars
was offered in the Goldman’s and Nassinov’s work [Go00]. According to the
authors, bosonic poorly interacting massive particles which have masses
more than 200 GeV can be condensed on to
the neutron star nucleus, forming the configurations being close to
the gravitational radius. These configurations collapse forming mini-black
Thus, there are various ways of small black hole formation
and now it is necessary to discuss the question, how black holes
appear in space bodies, in particular, in the Earth.
Black holes in
space bodies will be the subject of the following chapter.
2 - Black
holes in space bodies
Ì. Lifshits has shown in 1946 [Ëè00], in the homogeneous extending world
galaxies and their clusters cannot appear due to the gravitational
instability. Initial inhomogeneities of density of Metagalactic substance
are necessary, which should play a role of germs in various sorts of space
difficulties in an explanation of the origin of initial inhomogeneities
have forced to appeal to the idea of transmetagalactic origin of
2.1. Otons are
universal centers ("germs") of formation of space objects
Black holes as
relics of grey holes can be effectively used as germs for formation of
various space objects.
In the otonic
worlds conception transmetagalactic black holes represent universal
centers of formation of classical astrophysical objects: planets,
satellites of planets, comets, planetesimals, stars, galactic nuclei,
clusters of galaxies and so on.
Thus, the answer to a question "How
black holes have appeared in the Earth?" becomes clear. Black holes
initially were in the Earth and other space bodies. Being "germs" of these
bodies, black holes precede the formation of usual astrophysical
For a long time the idea of black holes as "germs" of
galaxies and clusters of galaxies [Ca03] has received popularity, but the
idea of black holes as "germs" of stars [Cl00], [Fo00] is less known. In
the framework of otonic scenario otons are considered to be universal
"germs" of all space objects down to planets. A logic consequence of this
idea is a notion of the existence of otons ensemble in space bodies which
are not only situated at the center of objects, but also moving in their
The following scheme of otons hit in space
bodies is possible. In standard cosmogonic scenario planets (in
particular, the Earth) are considered to have been formed by due to
accretion of planetesimals on to "germs" of planets. But planetesimals
themselves, as it follows from the otonic scenario, have been formed as
well by due to accretion of substance on to otons, which were "germs" of
Thus, otons are not single, "naked", and they
initially are in appropriate gravitational potential "holes" and
surrounded with substance. Here are otons, having shells of substance,
that can be grasped by space bodies [Òð11]. At last, it is possible simply
to postulate the existence of otons in the Earth, not putting a question
on their origin.
In the beginning we shall discuss the most
characteristic manifestations of black holes in space bodies.
The choice of
points at issue is obvious:
stars (maximal density of a matter)
(the nearest star and the largest object in Solar system)
which have brighter manifestations of black holes, than on the
2.2. Black holes in neutron
stars and the phenomenon of pulsars
black holes do not influence radically on stars evolution, but they can
render a decisive influence on evolution of poststars: white dwarves and
density of substance significantly higher, than stars have, hence, the
rate of substance accretion on to a black hole and the energy separation
at accretion should be larger as well. In this respect millisecond pulsars
To explain the phenomenon of pulsars and, in
particular, of formation of millisecond pulsars, the alternative model of
neutron star which contains a small black hole at the center was proposed
by the author [Tr01,3]. According to this model, the acceleration of
rotation occurs due to the neutron star substance flow (accretion) on to
the black hole, that leads to decreasing of angular momentum and,
consequently, to increasing of speed of rotation.
From this model,
the possibility of existence of the submillisecond pulsars class with Pmin
< 0,5 ms was predicted. The submillisecond optical pulsar (P 0.5 ms) in
the region of SUPERNEW SN-1987A, discovered
since the prediction has been made, is a good confirmation of a fidelity
of the given model.
The other consequence of this model is the
possibility of acceleration of solitary pulsars rotation, since the reason
of this acceleration is the internal structure of a neutron star (the
presence of a small black hole in the center).
confirmation of this conclusion is the discovering of the negative
derivative of period (Ð = -2*10-17 ñ/ñ) of the single pulsar PSR 2127 + 11 (Ð = 110 ms) in
globular cluster Ì15.
The black hole in the center means the
presence of point-like mass in the neutron star center, on to which a
drain (an accretion) of superconductive neutron liquid occurs. The mass
which has appeared in the small black hole ("point"), does not already
contribute to the inertia momentum. The decrease of the inertia momentum
by due to the law of rotating momentum conservation must be compensated by
acceleration of rotation.
It simplifies the task considerably and
allows to determine the accretion rate on to a black hole by the
derivative of period from the condition of rotating momentum
J w = L =
momentum for neutron star is defined by the expression:
J » 0,1
MR2 , (2.2.2)
which gives the
following estimation of the neutron star inertia momentum: J0 = 1044 g
account (2.2.2.) from (2.2.1.) it is possible to obtain:
Assuming R =
const and differentiating (2.2.3.) with respect to time, we shall
of neutron star parameters and parameters of the 110 ms pulsar gives the
following estimation of the accretion rate on to the central black hole:
Let us put to
use the formula for the hydrodynamic spherical accretion [Øà00] to
estimate the black hole mass, since superfluid liquid is in the interior
of neutron star:
The black hole
parameters are obtained from (2.2.5.) by substitution of the neutron star
MBH » 1,58*1019g, RBH »
2*10-9 sm, r BH » 1044 g
The sizes by
the order are comparable with atomic sizes, and the considerable magnitude
of density speaks about the degree of matter compression. These quantities
together show the validity of the analogy of matter accretion on to small
black hole with tightening of substance in a point.
Let us notice,
that estimations given are illustrative rather than quantitative, since
the repelling pressure of fermi-system is not taking into account. The
problem of accretion of super-dense degenerated substance on to
micro-black holes was not yet specially investigated. The Hawking
radiation and the fermi-pressure of substance accreted can not only
decrease considerably the rate of accretion, but also under certain
conditions are capable to stop the accretion.
Since the accretion
rate is directly proportional to square of the black hole mass, the
acceleration of pulsar rotation is to increase with time, i.e.,
fast-rotating pulsars must be old objects. On the one hand, the pulsar
rotation is decelerated due to the energy loss, and on the other hand, it
is accelerated due to the inertia momentum increase. These processes
follow simultaneously, but the deceleration of rotation dominates at the
beginning due to the energy loss, and after some time the accretion
process on to the black hole leads to the acceleration of rotation.
derivative of the period must increase with the time too.
accretion rate on to a black hole (2.2.4.) corresponds to considerable
amount of energy extraction, which should warm up the neutron star; and
since the accretion rate grows with the time, the neutron star cooling
process must be exchanged for its heating.
Thus, old pulsars should
be not only fast-rotating, but also hot. An observation of hard radiation
from single millisecond pulsars, having the negative derivative of period,
for example, for PSR 2127 + 11, would be one more confirmation of black
hole's presence in neutron stars.
The negative derivative of the
single pulsar PSR 2127 + 11 implies the internal cause of the rotation
acceleration, that is, it certificates the accretion of the neutron star
substance on to small interior black hole. Because of told above it should
be expected the discovery of other single pulsars with the negative
derivative of the period. These pulsars should have the significant second
derivative of the period as well.
The model given explains the very
phenomenon of pulsars [Tr01,03]. The substance accretion on to the Kerr black hole is anisotropic, leading to the
appearance of specific directions of energy radiation (projectors), which
is the feature of pulsars. Such the character of radiation creates "heat
dots" at the neutron star surface or sources of pulsing
But let us pass to discussion of problems concerning
with space objects, closer to the Earth: the Sun and other objects of our
2.3. The solar
neutrino deficiency problem and the central black hole in the model of the
suggested that the intrasolar black hole of the mass of 1017 g
[Ha00]: "can be the cause, that the flow of neutrino from the Sun does not
coincide with that predicted ".
Till now the problem of solar
neutrino has not yet found any decision. Standard models of the Sun
predict the neutrino flow in the experiment with 37Ñ1 to be of the order
of 7,9 ± 2,6 SNU [Ba00]. While the level observed now is 2,1 ± 0,9 SNU
It shows, that
there is a significant divergence between the predictions of standard
models and the experiments of Davies. All this has resulted in the
necessity to consider an alternative energy source of the Sun, namely the
central, intrasolar black hole, on to which solar substance
This idea has received development in works of other
scientists and the further accounts have shown, that the hole being in
center of the Sun with the mass of the order of
10-5MO can provide the half of solar luminosity due
to the accretion [Cl00]. It leads to decrease of solar neutrino flow up to
the level corresponding to experimental data.
The model of
intrasolar black hole concerned meets a difficulty of the following kind.
The central black hole already now gives the contribution 51 % of
luminosity of the Sun if MBH = 1,5 10-5Ì O .
There are no
fundamental reasons that the black hole should do not give almost the
whole luminosity of the Sun.
However the future of the Sun depends
considerably upon the central black hole large luminosity. Since the mass
and the luminosity of intrasolar black hole increase exponentially, the
Sun should soon (during the time less in comparison with 109 years) leave
a main sequence .
This allocates the Sun in an especially rare
class of stars having internal black holes.
Besides, it is
necessary to recognize, that we observe the Sun during rather special
epoch of its evolution, in that moment, when the black hole luminosity is
of the same order as the solar one due to burning of hydrogen. The
following alternative arises.
It is necessary whether to recognize,
that we are near the star of the most rare type in the exclusive moment of
its evolution, or to recognize, that the classical model of accretion on
to black holes is not applicable to the accretion of super-dense substance
on to small black holes, for which the account of quantum effects [Òð11]
Moreover, accretion inside stars occurs, the most
sooner, on to fermioton, that is, in the certain sense, there is a return
to idea on the accretion on to a neutron nucleus as a source of star’s
energy [La20]. The consideration of the stellar substance accretion on to
fermioton should eliminate available difficulties with star’s energetics
and the problem of solar neutrino deficiency.
At last, we shall
note one more idea brought forth in the same work [Cl00], that the
intraplanetary black hole is responsible for high luminosity of the planet
this question, we pass to subject of the following
2.4. Black holes in
At last stage
of the black hole evaporation the explosion happens, in which in 0,1 s the
energy of 1030 erg is extracted.
It is rather
significant amount for the planet’s energetics (the thermal flow from
internals of the Earth - 3,17*1020 erg.s-1, the
thermal flow of the Jupiter - 3*1024 erg.s-1, the
luminosity of the Jupiter’s satellite Io -
holes can be involved to explain the planet’s energetics. It is necessary
to note, that the large part of the black hole radiation (gravitational,
neutrino and others) freely leaves in outer space.
In the case of
small black holes an other mechanism of energy extraction - accretion of
environmental substance - is possible too. Also, the possibility of energy
extraction in collisions of small black holes is of interest, though the
probability of a such kind of events for single otons is extremely small.
However since all space bodies are gravitational connected systems, there
are no absolutely any reasons to make similar exception for otons. But in
this case the probability of small black holes collisions grows
Black holes can the most distinctive manifest themselves
in planets as a point gravitational masses and "hot" points, and as
anomaly of different kind: dynamical, gravitational, geothermal,
geochemical, magnetic, as abnormal sources of particles and others.
Dynamical anomalies in planet’s rotation are revealed itself in changes of
rotation periods and shifts of poles.
Gravitational anomalies on
the Earth attain 500 mGal [Ãð00], [Ãð20,21] and there are difficulties in
their understanding. Small black holes are the best candidates for the
role of “point-like masses".
The more significant gravitational
anomalies were discovered on the Moon and Mars [Ãð20,21], [Ñà30]. So on the Moon in the
region of mascons the rate of the gravitational anomalies value to the
gravitational field intensity value is more on the order than on the
The even more expressive gravitational anomaly is discovered
on Mars in the region of Tharsis mountains, which is the unique mascon dominating in the
gravitational field of Mars. The asymmetry of the gravitational field is
those, that the areoid can be presented by the model of a spherical planet
with a point mass in the region of Tharsis mountains.
of the solar system are possible to possess an even more abnormal
gravitational field, that will testify for the existence of black
Planets, especially of the Earth group, in some attitude are
chemical anomalies, because of their structure strictly differs from the
average chemical structure of space substance, in which hydrogen and
helium dominate. Specific mechanisms of element’s formation are required
for planets to explain available chemical structure.
conditions are required for running thermonuclear reactions of syntheses
in planets. In particular, the detection of the abnormal light isotope
helium-3 amounts speaks about thermonuclear reactions in the Earth’s
Thus, to two well-known mechanisms of chemical element’s
formation (the Big Bang and stars) and two mechanisms offered recently
(white holes and accretional disks of black holes), it is possible to add
the fifth mechanism: the thermonuclear synthesis in substance which is
warmed up by the micro-black hole radiation. It will help to eliminate
difficulties connected to formation of some heavy
Micro-black holes can simulate both motionless "hot
point", and "migrating" center of volcanic activity. Difficulties in an
explanation of giant's energetics, and in particular, of the grandiose
volcanic activity on Io [Hu10] require the search of new sources of
energy, which can be black holes.
In conclusion, let us discuss the
question on the possibility of micro-black holes explosions on bodies of
the solar system. It is interesting the possibility of solar flares
connection with explosions of micro-black holes, but the extraction during
an explosion of rather small energy 1030 erg, on the background
of the powerful solar energy flow (3,81*1033 ergs-1)
requires special analysis.
As far as a micro-black hole explosion
is concerned the Jupiter is of interest, which has the power of a thermal
flow equal to 3*1024 ergs-1. The black hole having
such the power, should explode during the nearest decades, and the power
of radiation should grow as PBH ~ t2/3.
the exploding black hole is in depths of a planet, the thermal flow from
explosion will appear at the planet surface much later. The explosion can
be detected by the neutrino flare with energy of the order 108
ÌeV and by seismic manifestations.
Rings around the giant planets,
the asteroids belt between Mars and Jupiter (rests of a planet Phaeton
explosion) and other small bodies of the solar system quite can be relics
of black hole explosions and (or) collisions [Òð09,11],
In conclusion, we shall mention the original idea of
Ì.D. Fogg about making use of black holes in artificial creating of
Earth-like Galilean satellites [Fo01].
From the fantastic projects
of using black holes by the earthly civilization in the future, let us
proceed to ordinary manifestations of terrestrial black holes. We shall
first discuss the features of earthly mass spectrum otons.
Back to Contents
3 - Otons of earthly mass
The opinion that
black holes, being in the Earth, must easily manifest themselves
dissipates by first rough estimations of effects caused by them. Even if
there are billions of small black holes in the Earth their finding is too
hard, since their gravitational fields merge with that of the
The gravitational radius of the Earth is few less than a
centimeter. Black holes of smaller masses possess microscopic sizes and
they move freely through the Earth. Their manifestations are rather
considerable but very localized. For example, a black hole with the mass
of large city has the size of an atomic nucleus.
If it appears
in the centre of ordinary table, the black hole gravitational force at a
distance about one centimeter from it will be ten thousands times greater
than the earthly gravitation. Outside the table the black hole gravitation
will not be almost felt.
Among otons of small masses the so called
micro-black holes have been investigated better, though the name of these
objects is incorrect by several reasons.
first, these objects are not black, since due to the Hawking effect
they shine and "become white-hot".
second, masses (respectively, sizes) of these objects decrease because
of the Hawking evaporation, i.e., the black hole is compressed and
objects are not black and in course of time they cease to be holes.
Therefore in many cases use is made of the term "otons", which has no such
Micro-white holes can appear to be stable, because
their behavior must be quite opposite to that of evaporating and exploding
black holes. Thereby, the less investigated case of micro-white holes,
some parameters of which coincide with those of terrestrial black holes,
is of interest for geophysics of otons.
characterize in short parameters of terrestrial otons.
Objects of microworld, comparable by
sizes (sm) with black holes.
Earthly bodies and objects, comparable
by masses (g) with black holes.
thickness of hair
The Moon, internal nucleus of the
hutches of supreme
Arctic ocean (1,8
(7,7 * 1019)
Great lakes (2,27
Vegetation of land (2,5 * 1018)
Technosphere of a state
City of million of people
The Large pyramid (5,84 * 1012)
Gas-mining platform “Troll”
(1,1 * 1012)
International Trade Centre in New-York
The most heavy railway composition
3.1. Parameters of
terrestrial black holes
present first sizes of black holes possessing masses of solar system
objects (the Earth, the Moon and planets).
In this case
for determining the gravitational radiuses the following formula is
Rg (sm) =
1,484 10-28 Ì (g) = 0,887Ì (M Å). (3.1.1.)
As it is
evident from (3.1.1.) the mass of all the objects of our planetary system
(besides of the Jupiter and the Sun), being concentrated in black holes,
would be allocated in one room, and a black hole with the mass of the
Earth (M Å ) in one dove egg would.
Masses and sizes of terrestrial
black holes (BH) in comparison with objects of micro-world and terrestrial
bodies are submitted in Table 3.1.1. In first two columns the black hole
masses, multiple to ten, and the corresponding gravitational radiuses are
presented. In the third and fourth columns are the gravitational radiuses,
multiple to ten, and the corresponding black hole masses.
hole of a mass M has the density:
= (g/sm3), (3.1.2.)
in inverse proportion to mass square.
A black hole with a mass of
the Earth has density 1027 g/sm3, which is in twelve
orders more than that of nuclear substance. A black hole with the mass of
a person (g) has the radius sm, which is in ten orders less than that of
elementary particles, and its density is equal to 1071
According to the expression (3.1.2.) the less
black hole mass, the more density of its substance. If the whole Earth's
mass be concentrated not in one, but in N black holes, the total volume of
all black holes would be equal to:
VNBH = N-2VBH ,
VBH is the volume of the black hole with the mass of the Earth;
VNBH is the total volume of N black holes, which the total mass
is equal to the mass of the Earth.
RNBH of this total volume is equal to:
RNBH = N-2/3 RBH ,
RBH is the gravitational radius of the Earth. If the whole
Earth's mass was concentrated not in one, but in billions of black holes,
the total volume would sharply decrease and would equal to the volume of
one molecule. The total volume of all the terrestrial black holes is
rather even less value.
Already this brightly shows, so far as the
task of finding objects, the total volume of which in the Earth does not
exceed the molecule volume and is in forty four orders less than the
volume of the Earth itself, is difficult. Nevertheless, gravitational
fields of terrestrial otons allow the direct gravimetric registration of
For imagining clearly gravitational manifestations of
otons on the Earth it is necessary to determine the gravitational force
acceleration (gBH) caused by black holes of different masses
(MBH) at different distances (RBH) in comparison
with that at the Earth's surface (g).
-2 = MBH
RBH -2 (3.1.4.).
of estimations let us enter the basic values of MBH and
RBH: RBH = R1 = 1 sm; М BH = M1 =
1,4731010 g. Taking account of these values the mass of the black hole,
which causes the acceleration (gBH = g) at distances, multiple
to 1 sm, is easily determined by the formula:
МBH = (RBH/R1)2
distances (RBH), at which black holes with masses multiple to
1010 g cause the acceleration gBH = g, another set of basic
values MBH and RBH is convenient: МBH =
М0 = 1010 g; RBH = R0 = 0,824
sm, and so is the next expression:
At last, the
formula, defining the distance Rk, at which gBH = kg, when the
mass of black hole MBH is given, is useful:
= (k)-1/2 RBH (3.1.7.).
gravitational force of the black hole with the mass of
1,47*1020 g at the distance 1 km will be equal to that of the
Earth, at the distance 1 m it exceeds the later millions times, and so
does it thousands billion times at the distance 1 mm.
imagine, what giant tornado such the black hole would cause, if it
appeared near the terrestrial surface. The above testifies the variety of
terrestrial black hole manifestations in dependence on their masses.
interaction with matter else more varies black hole
3.2. Problem of accretion onto small
black holes and fermi-otons
Not only the
quantum evaporation of black holes, but the accretion of matter can be a
source of terrestrial black hole energy.
Due to some
reasons the question on accretion of hard substance of the terrestrial
corex onto black hole is problematic. For example, the hard substance
being in the connected state, the preliminary work for its destruction is
needed. Therefore, in black hole's passing through the terrestrial matter
the tracks (cords, through apertures) must be formed.
main problem of the terrestrial black hole existence is connected with the
rapid accretional absorption ("devouring") of the space body by the black
available concerning accretion does not take account of quantum nature of
the region, in which the accretion onto small black holes occurs. In
accruing matter onto small black hole a fermi-system must be formed, which
plays the role of a source of repulsion. The task of accretion of
degenerated fermi-system substance onto small black hole not only was
decided, but even seem was not put.
Only those particles of
fermi-system will accrue, the velocities of which are less or equal to the
rate of black hole seizing. Those are the particles to be "at the bottom
of fermi-system particle energy distribution". It means that the particles
of fermi-system come away in the black hole not with maximal velocities,
but with minimal ones.
is quite opposite to ordinary "evaporation" of particles with maximal
velocities. The minimal mass (Mmin), which can accrue onto small black
hole, is defined by the sum of all the particles possessing
Neutron stars and white dwarves stabilize the
degenerated substance by their own gravitational field, but if the masses
are less than some critical value, the gravitational field is turned out
too weak for stabilizing the fermi-system. Possessing the considerable
intensity of gravitational field small black holes can create large
gradients of pressure and form fermi-systems of smaller masses. It means
that there happens the stabilizing of fermi-otonic system by the black
hole gravitational field resulting in fermi-oton formation.
bottom limit for masses of such systems is connected with the Hawking
effect, and those masses can not be less than 106 kg, because of exploding
of those small black holes. Though, it should be noted that the Hawking
effect in a substance must be essentially modified, therefore the bottom
limit for fermi-oton mass can be lower considerably.
of fermi-otons must be qualitatively similar to the structure of
degenerated stars: shells with different material contents and densities
decreasing to the surface will lay from the centre to the surface. As far
as fermi-otons are concerned the neutrinic shell is of especial interest,
since it is transparent for a substance, does not make a "friction" in the
Earth and is not teared by the terrestrial matter.
In a case of
small black hole exiting from a fermi-system (for example, the retardation
of a fermi-oton in a dense environment should lead to appearing the
difference between the velocity of oton motion and that of surrounding
substance) a fermi-system must decay forming transuranium elements. Thus,
deposits of transuranium elements are places of fermi-oton decays.
strong magnetic field like neutron stars, fermi-otons can cause short-term
variations of the terrestrial magnetic field, i.e., the correlations
between gravitational potential derivative variations and variations of
the magnetic field should take place.
Let us pay attention to
nuclearities, i.e., objects, which are nearest by their properties and
manifestations to fermi-otons.
has pointed out the possibility of nuclear substance, which consists of
white, black, and strange quarks compounding it, to be less massive than
usual nuclear matter with the same number of quarks in proton and neutron
compounds. These clots of the strange quark matter can be stable for
almost all barionic numbers (A), including those in interval between
ordinary nuclei (A £ 263) and neutron stars (A »
A.De Rujula and S.L. Glashow,
having introduced the term "nuclearities" for these objects, described the
properties of such quark formations, the probability of their meeeting
with the Earth and presumable experiments for detecting such meetings.
the authors, nuclearities can manifest themselves on the Earth as meteors,
as etched routes in mica and mountain breeds, they can create astroblems
and cause earthquakes. All these phenomena can be caused by fermi-otons as
well, but with one essential clause: one must take account of though
localized but very strong gravitational fields of otons.
it is possible to say, that real terrestrial black holes can not be single
and "naked", and the substance, gravitationally connected with them, makes
otonic manifestations more various. Models of gravitationally connected
fermi-oton systems have more wide heuristic
3.3. Gravitationally connected
systems of fermi-otons (grassifotons)
Let us notice,
that it is more correct to speak not about systems of "naked' single
otons, but about gravitationally connected systems of fermi-otons
objects with different states of matter, which has different densities and
temperatures, to be in a close neighborhood. It tells not only about real
GCSFO description difficulties, but about the large heuristic potential of
these objects in physics of the Earth.
geophysical phenomena can be attributed to an action of GCSFO, which have
parameters required. For these objects taking account of their reduced
name it is possible to introduce the terms "grassifotons" or " grasfoton
GCSFO can be verious, e.g., multiple systems, systems of
planetary type, systems of otonic gas type and others. In this section
estimations of characteristic parameters of such systems (system sizes, a
velocity and a period of oton-satellites rotation around the attractive
centre, parameters of gravitationally connected system motion on circle
orbits around the centre of the Earth), which are in the gravitational
field of the Earth, as well as in the absence of the external
gravitational field, are considered.
The estimations of some GCSFO
parameters were given in the joint with O.L. Artemenko work [Òð51]. The
analysis of the given estimated results shows, that the meaning for the
otons- satellites is insignificant. The analysis of estimation results
presented there shows the value of R0* for otons-satellites to
be not large.
M0* changing from 1011 to 1021 kg
R0* is changed from 0,825 to 83516 m.
The velocity of
oton-satellite motion on circle orbits around the attractive centre is
small too, which is conditioned by small (compared with MÅ)
masses of attractive otons.
the velocity of motion of an oton with the mass M0 =
108 kg (pre-explosive oton) on the circle orbit around the
centre with M0* = 1011 kg is equal to 2,85 m/s,
while the period of satellite rotation is equal to T0* = 1,82
In free GCSFO, where an external gravitational field does not
restrict system sizes, otons-satellites can located both on orbits with
radiuses R < R0*, and on those with R > R0*.
In the case given the velocity V0* decreases, when the circle
orbit radius increase, but the period of rotation T0* grows.
For example, in the case of an oton-satellite with the mass of
109 kg the velocity and the period of rotation on the circle
orbit with the radius R = 100 R0* around the centre with
M0* = 1013 kg will be equal to 0,9 m/s and 918 s
(15,3 min) accordingly.
Systems with sizes 100R0* and
more (i.e. with R > R1) can not actually exist, since GCSFO
in this case turn out to be unstable, and a re-seizure of otons-satellites
by internal masses of the Earth is possible.
As a whole, a
sufficiently large number of otons-satellites, locating on internal orbits
with R £ R1 and moving with small velocities, can rotate around the
central oton. Such the system reminds the ordinary planetary system such
as the Solar one. The presence of a large number of otons-satellites on
internal orbits will lead to periodical changes of their parameters due to
mutual satellite's influences upon each other.
As concerned with
the possibility of the existence of GCSFO an attention should be payed on
the universal empirical fact, that is: all known gravitational objects
enter in those or others gravitationally connected systems. The only
question is so far these systems are close. It seems obvious due to
universality of the low of gravitational attraction. Thereafter, there are
no any grounds to make such conclusions in respect of small black holes.
Not the existence of GCSFO, but of single black holes, requires the
All types of GCSFO regarded (excluding systems with
the radius of oton-satellite orbit about 1 km or more, when the action of
the centre and that of otons-satellites is separable) will not
considerably differ from single otons by their gravitational
manifestations. Otons-satellites will contribute additionally in total
energetics of the system.
An explosion of
one oton of the system does not mean the cancellation of system acting as
a whole (if, for example, one consider GCSFO supplying the volcanic
activity in a certain region), since other otons of the system will go on
extracting energy. This example shows the qualitative difference of GCSFO
from single otons: an explosion and a termination of existence of a
micro-black hole does not mean a termination of energetics manifestations
Grassifotons of different types can exist in the Earth:
from macro-grassifotons up to micro-grassifotons. Macro-grassifotons are
characterized by sizes from 10-1 to 106 m and small
rates of oton-satellite rotation on circle orbits.
Actual sizes of
a macro-system in the Earth can be estimated on the basis of the data on
all system oton masses and on the radius of the connected system orbit
relative to the centre of the Earth. Micro-grassifotons are characterized
by sizes from 10-7 to 101 m, rather large velocities
(which attain the first cosmic one) and small periods of oton-satellite
In regarding many tasks it is possible to neglect various
properties of grassifotons and regard them as micro-objects with a large
gravitational mass (as point masses). So, analyzing grassifoton motions in
the Earth they can be regarded in the first approximation as single, and
"naked", black holes.
Back to Contents
4 - Black holes in the
4.1. "Hidden" mass of the
The density of
terrestrial cortex substance g/ sm3 measured and the average
density of the Earth g/ sm3 differ considerably.
This is by
itself a special problem of "hidden" mass of the Earth. For solving this
problem the notion on other chemical structure of internal areas of the
Earth (i.e., that the increase of pressure in internal regions of the
Earth does not lead to essential growth of substance density), in
particular, the hypothesis of an iron nucleus, is introduced
But one can assume, that the part of the Earth’s mass is
made by black holes, and the average density of usual substance of the
Earth is equal to the density of terrestrial cortex substance really
Taking into account the total thermal flow of the Earth,
the maximal number of black holes, limited by these two factors, will be
determined as [Тр10]: Nвн = 4,3*109, that
corresponds to Мвн = 7*1017 g. Besides of the
central (germinal) black hole in all regions of the Earth (nucleus,
mantle, cortex) there can be black holes, which have got in the
proto-Earth in the compound of planetesimals.
However, it is
necessary to take into account that the part of energy is carried away
from the black hole by neutrino and gravitons, and the other one
transforms into the mass of rest.
need to consider the Hawking effect not for "naked" black holes, but for
fermiotons can change in many orders estimations given, which can be
regarded as a bottom limit of the number of terrestrial black holes. The
total mass of black holes can be assigned by such the value the model of
the hollow Earth to be natural (i.e., the main part of usual substance is
in the shell and the central area).
Black holes move freely through
the terrestrial internals and in the first approximation it is possible to
consider equations of black hole motion in the Earth disregarding
interactions with substance.
4.2. Oton motion in the
gravitational field of the Earth
gravitational field of the Earth otons move freely as point gravitational
masses even in terrestrial internals. Otons can move on elliptic orbits,
in one of focuses of which the nucleus of the Earth (central oton) must
Apocentres of oton orbits can
be in depths of the Earth, or close to its surface, or leave far in space
near the Earth. The velocity in apocentre is minimal, and the time of the
oton presence and action is maximal.
If apocentre is in depth, the
geophysical manifestation of the oton on the surface of the Earth is
small, and the probability of its registration is not great. If apocentre
is far in space near the Earth, the passage through the terrestrial
surface and geophysical manifestations of the oton will be short-term.
Therefore only those otons, apocentres of which lay near to the surface of
the Earth, can cause appreciable geophysical influence.
The plane of
oton orbit and the axis of rotation of the Earth should keep their spatial
position with respect to distant stars.
Due to rotation of the
Earth otons will approach every time to various areas of the terrestrial
surface. The only insignificant number of otons, which have periods
multiple to the period of rotation of the Earth about its axis (they can
be multiple to any number of periods), will appear in the fixed places of
the terrestrial surface.
The nearest to the terrestrial surface
multiple otons have the period multiple to seventeen (k = 17). This period
is equal to Т17 = (Тsd/17) = 5068,48 s = 84.47 min.
For the large half-axis from (4.2.1) we have R17 = 6476,7 km,
that is approximately in 1,5 kilometers less than the equatorial radius.
In more details the motion of black holes in the Earth is investigated by
means of computer in works [Тр20] [Силк].
For various versions of
numerical value of the Earth’s density at its surface equations of the
trajectory were solved and the time of motion was calculated. It being
necessary for the hypothesis on the otonic origin of volcanoes energy to
take into account otons, which touch the surface of the Earth, it was
assumed in the calculative formulas that b = R.
contrary, the parameter a ran all possible values from 0 to R. It turned
out that in all cases the trajectory is the socket, which can be
interpreted as precessing ellipse.
From manifold of otons moving
through the Earth only few will have parameters required.
There can be no
more than ten per one million such the otons. Other otons move chaotically
and do not lead to systematic energy extraction just in the same point of
the Earth. Therefore, the presence of the second coincidence would become
the essential point confirming the hypothesis of the otonic origin of
volcanoes energy. The more detailed analysis, both qualitative, and
quantitative, is the subject of the paper [Мит1].
In the works
given the oton interaction with a terrestrial substance was not taken into
account, though this qualitatively changes the picture of black hole
motion in the Earth.
4.3. Black hole motion in the
movement of intraterrestrial otons (moreover, that of fermi-otons
and grassiphotons) it is necessary to take account of interaction with
In view of the
approach developed in the monograph given, admitting the original presence
of black holes in space bodies, the time of intraterrestrial motion of
otons can be considerable.
Small black holes possess radiuses
compared to the sizes of elementary particles, and in many cases their
interaction with a terrestrial substance is described better in terms of
physics of elementary particles, not of astrophysics. This approach is
developed in the Greenstein and Burns paper [Gree].
But in their
work black holes are considered as external in respect to the Earth
objects, which have got accidentally in our planet and with large velocity
in very short time slip through the Earth. This initial condition,
naturally, results in a conclusion, that the interaction with a
terrestrial substance is not practically reflected in black hole motion
[Gree]. But all other results received in the paper can be applied to
intraterrestrial black holes.
The length of black hole free run is
proportional to the fourth degree of its velocity and inversely
proportional to its mass and the density of environment.
The black hole
with mass of 1015 g, which radius is equal to the radius of
neutron, moving in terrestrial substance with parabolic velocity, will
leave "a tunnel" in radius ~ 10-8 sm with the area of section s
= 10-16 sm2, which in ten orders exceeds the section
of strong interaction and, as a whole, is comparable to nuclear sections.
The width of
ionization track is about 10-4 sm. The energy, extracted along
the track by the black hole, is equal to Erg/sm. The length of free run in
the terrestrial substance is about few light years. Like neutrino, the
black hole can pass huge distances through matter, but it interacts with
environmental substance very strongly.
In the end of the paper
authors make a conclusion, that small black holes moving in the
interstellar substance do not practically lose their velocity, hence, they
cannot be seized by space bodies. It means, that the concept of small
black holes as relics of the Big Bang is hopeless both in theoretical, and
in observational relation.
The concept of otonic intraterrestrial
small black holes [Тр10-16, Tro1-8] has not similar difficulties:
velocities of intraterrestrial black holes, which touch the Earth, can be
from zero and more, the time of their presence in the Earth is unlimited
and the interaction with substance can be very considerable.
this approach the interaction of black holes with substance was considered
in Parkhomov’s work [Парх], in which interesting results were obtained:
holes having masses > 1013 kg were shown to have already
stopped their extraterrestrial motion
holes with masses of 1012 - 1013 kg are
intensively absorbed by the Earth at present
found, that at low enough velocity of black hole motion, which touch
the Earth, their "jamming" in the terrestrial substance occurs,
including near to its surface
of black hole motion in the terrestrial internals up to their stopping
was shown to be much less than the time of the existence of the
The motion time
of black hole with mass of 1020 g is equal to 5 years, of
1018 g is equal to 500 years, of 1015 g is equal to
500 thousands years, of 1012 g is equal to 500 millions years.
The factor of
velocity, as it is clear from all told above, else more varies
manifestations of black holes, and, among others, variations of global
parameters of the Earth.
4.4. Spontaneous variations of
global parameters of the Earth
The black hole
inside the Earth can leads in its motion to essential redistribution of
the pulse momentum.
explain changes of the period of rotation and displacements of poles. To
irregular (jump-like) changes of the period of rotation there should
correspond similar motions of black holes (probably, their casual
So, a daily
variation of the rotation period of the Earth cannot be explain by
seasonal moving of atmospheric masses.
In difference from
variations of global parameters of the Earth, which only mediatedly can
testify about intraterrestrial otons, the measurement of local variations
of gravitational potential derivatives means a direct gravimetric
registration of gravitational fields of terrestrial black holes.
Gravimetric registration of terrestrial black
variations of gravitational potential derivatives produced by moving
otons can be registered immidiatly by their gravitational field: they
produce short-term local gravitational anomalies [Òð06‑11],
Otons are till
noticed to be in principle such objects of physics to have been predicted
and discovered on the Earth as, for example, intermediate vector bosons
(W+, W-, Z0).
vector bosons were discovered in famous experiments of C. Rubbia,
which complicated and very expensive equipment was specially prepared for.
But in the case of oton's registration the situation is quite analogous to
which was in discovering of relic radiation, when the available equipment
has been used.
gravimetric equipment [Ãð00], [Ãð20,1] registers the first vertical
derivatives of the gravitational potential (g, gravimeters) and its second
horizontal derivatives (Wxx, variometers). Let us analyze the
behavior of the first and the second derivatives of gravitational
potential produced by otons.
temporal variations of the first ( Dg) and the second ( D
Wxx, D Wzz) gravitational potential derivatives
forced by moving near the Earth's surface otons we shall take into account
only two components of the oton motion.
The first, it
is a free oton fall in the Earth's gravitational field (the motion along
the Z-axis). Degenerated (oscillatory) orbits are considered. The second,
it is the oton motion relative to the Earth surface (the motion to the
West along the X-axis), arising by due to the rotation of the Earth. These
simplifications are quite justified for otons which orbit apocentres are
close to the Earth surface.
simplifications the time dependence of gravitational potential derivation
variations caused by otons will determined by expressions:
Ó0 are coordinates of oton orbit apocentre, Ìî is an
oton mass, V j - linear velocity the earthly surface point movement at
breadth of j (at breadth of Obninsk V j == 267 m s-1).
potential derivatives are connected with each other by the
Fig. 5.1.1. In the figure the Z-axis is directed vertically,
the X-axis is directed along the breadth and it is tangent to a point
of the observer (X = 0, Z = 0) being at the surface of the Earth.
Different parabolas mean different otonic trajectories inside or near
the radius of registration (Rr = 100 km). The specifity of
gravitational potentioal variations is followed from allocation
features of otonic orbits with respect to the observer. To a various
position of parabolas there correspond various combinations of
gravitational potential derivatives, both positive, and
an oton orbit apocentre influence not only quantitatively, but also
qualitatively on the otonic gravi-impulse picture.
oton’s orbits are shown in Fig. 5.1.1., which are in limits (or near) of
registration radius with respect to the coordinate system of the observer
who is residing on the earthly surface. Already from the character of
these orbits, or more precisely, from features of their arrangement with
respect to the observer it is obvious, insofar different can be the
character of the otonic gravi-impulse.
increase of gravitational force, which is then exchanged by its decrease,
is the most simple case. But there can be more complicated variants, when
in short time different and even opposite gravitational potential
derivatives variations are possible, for example: (+g, +Wzz), (-Wxx), (-g, -Wzz), (+Wxx).
the dependence of gravitational potential derivatives upon the time more
explicitly, we consider a more simple case (X0 = 0;
Zo = 0). This condition results in simplification of
expressions (5.1.1.) - (5.1.7.) and gives:
= 2V j GMo (Vj2 +
dependence is different in two cases:
1) t <
2V j /g
2) t >
2V j /g.
condition for (5.1.8.) - (5.1.10.) gives the following
(5.1.14) - (5.1.16) show that the change of gravitational potential
derivatives caused by the oton, which is near of apocenter, is defined by
the rate of the Earth’s rotation. But through about one minute the
vertical component of oton velocity becomes significant due to the free
fall acceleration in the gravitational field of the Earth.
to the second condition, which in a limiting case from (5.1.8) - (5.1.10)
gives following expressions:
(5.1.17.) - (5.1.19.) mean, that at the given stage the change of the
otonic gravi-impulse is determined by the oton’s acceleration in the
gravitational field of the Earth.
(5.1.14.) - (5.1.19.) clearly show that oton’s gravitational
manifestations have pulsed character. Gravitational anomalies caused by
the oton rapidly reach the maximum and so rapidly (in inverse proportion
to time in fourth - seventh degree) decrease.
above and expressions (5.1.8.) - (5.1.19.) it follows, that for
registration of otonic gravi-impulses it is necessary to remove
gravimetric data every second and there should not be an averaging on
large time intervals. As a result of such the "averaging" the otonic
gravi-impulse seems to be “erased” and the oton manifestation is not fixed
by the device.
amplitude of gravi-impulses should be on the order above than the accuracy
of the device, in order to be possible to resolve temporary structure of
the otonic gravi-impulse.
gravi-impulses have rather specific structure: the time of about one
minute; amplitudes corresponding to gravitational masses in millions and
billions of tons; temporary variations of otonic gravi-impulse
corresponding to extremely fast motions of supermassive bodies.
is possible to specify additional, characteristic only for otonic
gravi-impulses, features (see Fig. 5.1.1.):
variations of the gravitational potential vertical derivative (-
Dg, - DWzz), which means that cases of the
gravitational force inversion must occur
short-term variations of the gravitational potential horizontal
derivative (+ DWxx, - DWxx)
quick change (within few minutes) of different kinds of gravitational
potential derivatives variations (+ Dg, + DWzz,
- DWxx, - Dg, - DWzz, +
DWxx, + Dg, + DWzz,)
of magnetic and other geophysical fields micropulsations, synchronous
registrate otons is desirable to realize complex geophysical experiment,
in which the registration of geophysical fields should be carried out with
high temporary resolution not only by gravimeters, but also by
variometers, magnitometers and other geophysical equipment.
experiment on registration of otons it is necessary to estimate the order
of their masses value, to which the following item is
of oton mass by physical quantities registered
several independent ways to determine the oton mass through observable
physical quantities, namely, through direct gravimetric measurements of
gravitational potential derivatives variations, produced by
variations of the gravitational potential vertical derivative are mainly
registered ( D Wxx << D Wzz), then using
expressions (5.1.1.) - (5.1.4.) it is possible to obtain the value Ìî
through observable values of the gravitational potential derivatives
magnitude and through the time of their registration (tk):
values of the gravitational potential first and second derivatives
magnitude are equal accordingly to: D g (0), D Wzz (0). Registrating
horizontal otonic graviimpulses ( D Wxx >> D Wzz), by use of
(5.1.5.) - (5.1.6.), the oton mass can be determined through the
D Wxx (0) -
maximal value of gravitational potential horizontal derivative. It is
possible to determine the oton mass through expressions which do not
contain time explicitely. For this simultaneous measurements of various
gravitational potential derivatives are necessary, and from (5.1.1.) -
(5.1.4.) we have for oton mass:
At D Wxx
<< D Wzz
modern variometers do not register directly the value of the gravitational
force vertical gradient (Wxx), for its determination it is
necessary to use two synchronously working gravimeters, carried on height
h = D Z. In this case D Wzz = [ D g(2) - D g(1)]
But having two
series of synchronously determined values of the otonic graviimpulse first
gravitational potential vertical derivative [ D g(1), D g(2)] it is
possible to determine the oton mass directly through them:
simultaneously the gravitational potential second horizontal derivative [
D Wxx (1), D Wxx (2)] by variometers, being at the distance l from each
other, the value of the oton mass will be determined through the
parameters of gravitational potential derivative’s variations it is
possible to determine through expressions (5.2.1) - (5.2.7) the mass of
the oton, which has caused this variation, i.e., it is possible not only
to fix the very fact of the black hole gravimetric registration, but to
determine the order of its mass value.
5.3. Registration of the
gravitational potential second derivative minute variations with a
potential derivatives minute variations predicted within the framework of
the intraterrestrial black holes concept [Òð11], [Tr04] were found out by
the author in the experiments have been carried out [Òð13,4], [Tr06,7].
As it was
already noted, the registration of gravitational potential derivatives
minute variations - otonic graviimpulses - ÎGI (see 5.1.) means the
discovering of intraterrestrial black holes.
experiment on registration of the gravitational potential second
derivative short-term variations have been carried out by the author with
the variometre Å-60 in the Obninsk geophysical observatory (the Institute
of physics of the Earth, the Academy of Sciences of the USSR) in June,
proceeding to the discussion of experimental results, let us note that the
question on gravitational potential derivatives short-term (minute)
variations neither in the theoretical aspect, nor with respect of their
experimental registration was not put earlier in gravimetry [Ãð00],
[Ãð20,1], [Ïî00,1]. Therefore it was necessary to carry out a preliminary
experiment on revealing the reaction of Å-60 on short-term gravitational
sensitivity of variometer Å-60 allows to register at close distances the
gravitational mass of the operator: Ì0 (kg) = 7,5
(R0m)3. A gravitational mass of 60 kgs is registered
at distances up to 2 m, 80 kgs -2,2 m, 117 kgs -2,5 m, 200 kgs - 3 m, 1
ton - 5 m. Thus, the operator, coming to the variometer at distances less
than 2 – 2,5 m, causes such changes of the gravitational potential second
derivative, which are registered by the variometer.
circumstance has allowed the author to carry out the experiment on
revealing of variometre Å-60 reactions on short-term gravitational
influences, which results are provided in Table 5.3.1. The experiment was
carried out from 14h 30m (08. 06.1991) to 5h 30m (09. 06. 1991) of the
available registerring systems of the variometer (two beams) can react
differently depending on the master mass location:
indications of both systems can simultaneously increase or
indications of registerring systems vary in opposite phase (for one
system indications increase, and for another one they decrease and
gravitational mass can be registered by only one of the systems, but
the other one has practically no response.
The time of
gravitational influence recording appears several more times than the time
of the gravitational influence itself (Table 5.3.1.). Gravitational
influences with a duration of the order of a second are not already
detectable by the device.
Duration (in min) of the master gravitational mass influence,
( D tGI ), and duration of registration of a gravitational impulse
from the master mass (Ìm 85 kgs) by the Å-60 variometre, ( D tE-60
variations of the gravitational potential second derivative were detected
from 5h30m UT (09.06.1991) to 5h30m UT (10.06.1991) in the Obninsk
geophysical observatory with the Å-60 variometer, of which three possess
enough explicit structure for their identification with ÎGI:
t0 = 08h14m (09.06.1991), D tE-60 = 9 min, D
tOGI = 2 min
t0 = 15h19m (09.06.1991), D tE ‑60 = 7.4 min, D
tOGI = 1 min
t0 = 05h00m (10.06.1991), D tE-60 = 12.6 min, D
tOGI = 6 min
As it is
obvious from aforesaid, the duration of the gravitational potential second
derivative variations registered coincides in a surprising way with those
predicted by the ÎGI theory [Òð11], [Tr04] (see also Table 5.3.2).
identification with ÎGI is also supported by the fact that no
gravitational impulses with duration about an hour or more were
discovered, i.e., with a duration which would clearly contradict the ÎGI
Duration (in s) of variations of the gravitational potential
second derivative tOGI for which the amplitude of otonic
gravi-impulse (OGI) decreases in k time for different values of oton
orbit apocentre coordinates . is approximately equal to for
corresponding values of
estimations of oton’s masses (see item 5.2. and Tables 5.3.1.– 5.3.2.)
give values of the order 1017 g and more, i.e., the objects
which caused minute variations of the gravitational potential second
derivative registered in the experiment are, all of them,
5.4. Discovering of
gravitational force short-term variations with the gravimeter
For the justification of OGI
registration the realization of experiments on detection of short-term
variations of the gravitational potential first derivative (GPFD) would be
1991 the author performed the experiment on registration of GPFD
variations in Institute of Geology and Fuel Minerals Exploitation (IGFME,
independent gravimeters by the type of Scintrex CG-3 (Autograv - Automatic
Gravity Meter) were used in the experiment. These two independent
gravimeters were located in the same cellar room. Values of GPFD were
registered every minute. Three synchronous GPFD variations were detected
by two gravimeters, and they have rather significant amplitudes and a
number of GPFD with small amplitudes (Fig. 5.4.1)
It is hard
to explain these GPFD variations by apparatus errors, since gravitational
impulses were registered synchronously by two independent gravimeters.
Because of these devices location in the same room it is possible to try
to explain these sharp synchronous variations of gravimeter’s indications
by local technogeneous souses of the mechanical, electrical, etc. nature.
such local influences upon experimental results, it is necessary to
separate gravimeters enough far apart.
There are also
a number of GPFD variations with small amplitudes (of the order of 0,05
mGal) which are correlated with one another (Fig. 5.4.1). These
correlations (for example, “a" and "b"), likely, are not casual, and GPFD
variations have the general gravitational nature.
of GPFD variations which were registered by the two gravimeters
synchronously correspond to the theory of otonic gravitational
5.5. Project to
synchronous registration of short-term variations of the gravitational
potential first and second derivatives
investigative purpose is the registration of terrestrial small black holes
which have different masses and areas of localization in the Earth.
registration of gravitational potential derivative’s variations performed
have following lacks: the limitedness of the time of gravimetric data
recording, the insufficient degree of temporary resolution, too close
arrangement of gravimetric recording systems one to another, the absence
of seismic control.
The next experiment is planned to carry out by
using at least three independent recording systems: two systems of the
Å-60 variometer and the gravimeter registering tides.
control of the experiment will be provided. The temporary resolution of
gravitational signals is expected to be of the order 1s, the duration of
registration - 106s. For increasing the cleanliness of the
experiment and controlling other geophysical fields is planned making use
the magnitometer, the slopmeter, the sensor of air density,
Let us note
that gravitational potential derivative’s variations in the range of small
amplitudes caused by distant otons put a limit on the accuracy of
gravimetric measurements and on the determination of the gravitational
constant. In other words, the gravitational field of the Earth constantly
"trembles", and otonic variations of the gravitational field create the
incurable "gravitational noise".
By due to
synchronous registration of the gravitational potential first and second
derivatives it is possible to increase in this experiment the accuracy of
mass spectrum determination in two orders.
The even more
radical project of terrestrial oton’s registration should use the
influence of terrestrial otons on the technosphere, in particular, on
5.6. Cities as
technogeneous indicators of terrestrial black holes
approach to registration of terrestrial SBH consists in establishing of a
gravimetric equipment in cities, instead of far from them.
This is because
black holes appearing near to the earthly surface can influence
considerably upon the nearest objects, but in the distant deserted areas
are there no witnesses of black holes manifestations. The situation is
radically different in cities.
of population in cities in one thousand times more than the average
density of population of the Earth, and it means that only one thousandth
of the earthly surface has observers of short-term otonic manifestations.
In other words, there are more than one thousand unobservable black holes
per an observable one. In a city the black hole can be observed in
thousands times more often, than in any region of the earthly
This is not
yet all. If the tree, pulled out by a black hole, will hardly pay the
special attention of the people, the destruction of a multi-storey
building (the probability of hit in it is proportional to the cube of the
linear size) cannot remain unnoticed in a city.
direct witnesses of such events both inhabitants of a city and of a planet
can learn about it through the mass media. If gravimeters and variometers
have registered OGI synchronously, the gravitational nature of the
building destruction would find the scientific motivation. So, all the
technogeneous environment and building of a city can be independent
certificates of black hole’s manifestations.
But of the
most interesting is that gravitational potential variations are so
considerable, that inversions of the gravitational force frequently occur.
local inversions of the gravitational force were already observed
repeatedly and there are numerous evidences of similar phenomena, though
till now there was no adequate interpretation of these
evidences of short-term local inversions of the gravitational
It is possible
to detect gravitational potential derivative’s variations by the direct
observation of short-term local inversions of the gravitational force,
which have the pulsed nature (see item 5.1.).
It is a kind of
gravitational pushes directed opposite to the Earth attraction. Further we
shall note some phenomena, which testify the noticeable value of otonic
tornadoes manifest themselves as antigravitational whirlwinds which
working contrary to the force of gravitation lift upwards various things,
animals and people [Õå00], [Êà10].
The fall of
various objects from the sky (pieces of ice, dead people, stones, metallic
things and others) [ÕÕ00] and strange "rains" [Ëà10] consisting of fishes,
frogs, grains, coins, etc. tell us that these things were in due course
lifted highly in the sky notwithstanding to the force of gravitation of
the Earth. The only small part of such phenomena is accessible to
numerous manifestations of gravitational force inversions at
gravi-tectonic building destructions up to evidences about that buildings
rose and hanged momentarily in the air [Áà10]. The brightest phenomenon of
such kinds was the event in the town Sasovo of the Ryazan region which has
occurred in April 12, 1991 . In the result of the Sasovo event the funnel
by a diameter of 28 meters and depth up to 4 meters was formed, and the
large part of the ground has disappeared from this place without leaving
any traces [×å20].
From words of
eyewitnesses, at the Spitak earthquake the whole layers of ground, houses,
people, buses rose upwards. At the Zaysan earthquake thousands tons of
water have risen from the lake [Áà10].
evidences can be continued, but they have common faults: the low degree of
reliability of evidences of people who are in an extreme situation, and
the impossibility of similar phenomena reproduction. In this respect
experiments on the gravimetric equipment favorably differ. Therefore the
complex experiment in the megapolicies could connect advantages of these
the reliability of oton’s registration there would be useful other
properties of terrestrial black holes. In this respect the quantum
radiation of micro-black holes is of importance, which will be a subject
of the following chapter.
6 - Some issues
on terrestrial black hole radiation
6.1. Laws of black hole physics
and the problem "of thermal death" of the Universe
investigating black holes their laws were found out to be similar to the
principles of thermodynamics.
Let us make a
small deviation, having looked into the most interesting problem "of
thermal death" of the Universe, which is connected with the principles of
have one property essentially distinguishing them from classical
astrophysical objects: they only absorb radiation and substance. This
property of black holes has found a reflection in the so called Hawking
theorem, who has proved the area of black holes not to decrease in any
classical interactions of them with each other and with the
S.Hawking, J.Beckenstein and other scientists works the laws
of black hole physics were formulated, coinciding by the form of
mathematical record with the laws of thermodynamics [Be10], [Ha01,3],
[Õî01,2,3], [Øÿ00], [Ôð00,1].
of thermodynamic quantities, i.e., entropy and temperature, in black hole
physics are accordingly the area of surface and the superficial
gravitation. Decrease of temperature or increase of entropy of black hole
corresponds to increasing of its mass, i.e., not dispersion, but
concentration of matter is connected with increase of entropy.
laws of black hole physics are connected with the irreversible nature of
space substance and radiation concentration. For the first time in science
there were predicted and discovered objects which can resist to
thermodynamic processes of energy dissipation. In the future stellar
objects and space systems must finish their evolution by black hole
formation. In the course of time the era of domination of processes of
dissipation of radiation and energy must be changed by the era of their
transformations of forms of motion and energy in space can be presented as
The energy of
radiation, dissipated in initial STM (otonic world) Ì (0, +) (see
Fig.1.4.1.) and concentrating in STM of black holes M (0, i), transforms
in kinetic energy of motion. Collapse of oton matter in the region Ì (0, ·
-) turns into anticollapse. A sort of oton matter recoil occurs:
compression is replaced by repulsion. Then the kinetic energy of matter
dissipated by a white hole in regions M (1, -i), M (i, +) transforms into
the gravitational potential energy.
fragmentation of substance dissipated in another otonic world Ì (1, +)
leads to the transition of potential energy in thermal. This process,
growing, results in formation of star objects, in which thermal form of
motion gives life to nuclear one. Steady space thermodynamic potentials
are created as the result of nuclear reactions in stars.
That is the
possible circulation of forms of motion and energy leading to the
restoration of matter thermodynamic activity. But we shall return to
terrestrial micro-black holes, which emit various sorts of radiation, in
radiation of small black holes
One of small
mass oton features is the Hawking effect. The spectrum of black hole (BH)
radiation was first calculated by Page [Pa01,2], which then was elaborated
The total power
of black hole radiation for various cases can be expressed by the
PBH = (kg + kn + kg +
ke + kN) Pc
kn + kg + ke + kN = 1
factors (k) mean parts of black hole radiation power, corresponding to
different types of particles: kg (gravitons), k n (neutrino), kg
(photons), ke (leptons), kN (barions).
masses (Mâí < 1010,5 kgs) and large powers of black hole
radiation the outputs of radiation essentially depend on the model of
strong interaction at superhigh energies and on the spectrum of masses of
elementary particles, but this was investigated insufficiently.
the spectrum of black hole radiation there are data only for three cases
[Ôð01,1], [Íî14], which are given in table 6.2.1.
Power and spectrum of radiation
of black holes of various masses: PBH = (kg +
kn + kg + ke + kN)
connection with principal opportunity of experimental registration of high
energy particle radiation, including neutrino, from terrestrial BHs we
shall provide more exact accounts of neutrino radiation flow
characteristics, according to joint with V.S.Gurin work [Òð41],
concentrate the attention on the radiation from nonrotating BHs, because
integral features of radiation depend a little on the fact of rotation.
Besides that, a rapidly rotating, moreover charged, BH inside dense
heavenly bodies will quickly lost the moment of rotation and the charge
because of interaction with environmental substance.
decrease due to radiation of one kind of particles with quantum numbers l,
m, p occurs under the law
where Ì is the
mass of BH in the moment given, w is the energy of particles (geometrized
units G = c = 1 are used ). Taking into account the dominant contribution
from modes with I = s = 1/2 for massless neutrino
and for massive
particles with mass of rest m and spin 1/2
The spectrum of
radiation dN/dtd w is determined by the subintegral expression (6.2.2)
with the appropriate substitution (6.2.3) or (6.2.4):
dN/dtd w =
G w lmp /(exp(8 p M w ) + 1)
The results of
calculations for parameters of BHs, which presumably could be in the
Earth’s interiors are presented below.
spectrum of massless neutrino radiation for Schwartzschild BH is almost
the symmetric bell-like curve, the position of which maximum is defined by
the mass of BH.
One can see the
energy of radiated particles to depend essentially on this one BH
parameter: so, if the main share of neutrino, radiated by a hole with Ì
> 1012 g, is in the energy range less than 10 MeV, the main
contribution from neutrino with energies more than 1 GeV will be in the
case of BH with Ì < 1012 g, and for BH with Ì <
1010 g neutrino with energies more than 1 TeV are radiated.
This is of
importance for analyzing the problem of registration of neutrino, which
appear at the quantum evaporation of micro-BH, since in difference from BH
of solar masses, when energy does not exceed 15 MeV, in the case of BH of
specified range of masses considerably (in 3-4 orders) more energetic
particles should be expected, which can be easier registered because of a
greater section of absorption in substance (see below).
position of maximum in the spectrum defines a rang of neutrino energies,
which should be expected from corresponding BH, and it can be determined
from the transcendental equation ln (x - 2) = -õ, where x = 8 p M w max ,
that gives (in geometrized units):
flow of energy radiated due to process considered as neutrino (or flow of
particles) in the whole spectrum or in some spectral interval is obtained
by the integration of expressions for dN/d w dt , and it grows strongly
with decrease of BH mass.
admits the existence of neutrino mass of rest, which is quite probable
according the modern data: m( n e ) < 17 eV; m( n m ) < 0,27 MeV; m(
n t ) < 35 MeV, it is interesting to analyze features of radiation of
these particles due to the Hawking effect, i.e., of particles with the
same quantum numbers, but having unzero mass of rest in the formula
neutrino of the fourth generation, for which the estimation of mass is
considerably more: m( n 4 ) ~ 45 GeV, the spectrum of radiation can
essentially change, but then the emission of n 4 will run together with
other heavy particles of spin 1/2: protons, neutrons, muons, etc.
considerably smaller masses for n e and n m in a case of MBH less than
1014-1015 g do not practically change the spectrum and the total flow of
radiated neutrino. In general, the spectrum feature is similar to that for
massless particles, and values for complete flow and position of the
maximum of spectrum dN/d w dt differ unessentially.
The shape of
spectra dM = d w dt is similar to that for the number of particles, and
its integration gives the rate of BH mass loss, dM/dt, which is turned out
to be inverse proportional to Ì2.
deciding question on the registration of neutrino flow from BH, presumably
located inside planets, we shall consider estimations for sections of
neutrino absorption, for example, n e , due to interactions with electrons
in the nondegenerated electron gas (interactions with nuclons have smaller
sections), which can take place at its detecting.
The value of
the section in strong degrees depends on energetics and it is defined
according to the following formulas [La10]:
where m is the
mass of electron.
It can be
noted that in both cases the detecting of particles with higher energy,
which share is great for BH of a smaller mass, is more probable. Unlike
the case of solar neutrino terrestrial BH can radiate neutrino with
energies more than 103 MeV, which raises the section of absorption in 2-3
the detector of neutrino at the close distance from the presumable BH
localization place (its exit on the surface), detectors of already
existing designs should detect the sharp excess of the flow of particles
in comparison with background and solar ones, and the directivity of this
high flow will indicate the possible localization of its source, i.e.,
One of such
presumable places on the Earth is acting volcanoes [Tr01,5]. However
neutrino detectors existing are located regardless to geological activity,
therefore abnormal high flows from localized sources could not be
detected, since they rapidly decrease when removing from a
formulas above reflect the contribution to radiation from one sort of
particles with spin 1/2, but actually BH will radiate other particles too
[Pa01,2], [Ol00], [Ma00,1]. To calculate the radiation of three generation
neutrino and antineutrino in the case of their masslessness calculated
values of a flow should be multiplied by 6. If neutrinoes have unzero mass
of rest, the contribution of each type will differ a little, and in view
of the problem of registration each type of neutrino must be considered
fourth possible type of neutrino, if it exists, has much more greater mass
of rest than others ( ³ 45 GeV), its contribution to BH radiation will
will reveal itself already after nuclons and hyperons for BH with Ì
<< 1010 g.
should radiate practically all particles down to Plankian ones, that is
itself of great scientific importance.
6.3. Explosions of micro-black holes
- Plankian particles - Theories of the Great Unification
black holes, most likely, occur in the central region of the Earth, which
is a kind of a storehouse of pre-explosive and explosive black holes.
region of the terrestrial nucleus is chosen for gravitational objects.
This is the region of the most ancient part of the gravitational potential
"hole", in which there should be located the most ancient and short-living
black holes. This have given a ground for the project of registration of
Plankian particles, which are the test for verifying theories of the Great
approach, developed in the monograph, SBH are considered as "germs"
(centers of usual substance condensation) of space bodies, which means
that SBH are not seized by space bodies, but are originally in them.
conclusions of especial importance follow from this approach.
restrictions on number of SBH, connected with the Hawking radiation,
are automatically removed (the Hawking radiation is thermolized in a
the newest cosmological scenario, in particular, the inflationary
cosmology opens new opportunities in solving the problem of SBH
SBH in composition of planetesimals and asteroids can be seized by a
gravitational field of the Earth.
researches on the registration of black hole explosions carried out in the
other direction. First, black holes were looked for not in depths of the
Earth, but in depths of Space. Secondly, they were tried to detect not by
neutrino radiation, but by electromagnetic one.
neutrino bursts it is possible to use any available neutrino detectors,
because all of them are almost equally distanced from the region of black
hole location. It is desirable only to lower in one order the value of
neutrino energy registered. In available deep-water neutrino detectors
this value is equal to 50-100 GeV, and to detect a black hole surely for
few years before its explosion it is necessary to register neutrino with
the energy of the order of 10 GeV.
pre-explosive black hole with MBH » 109 kg radiates during few
years neutrino with the energy of the order of 10 GeV, the flow of which
at the surface of the Earth is jÅ » 109
m-2s-1. The energy and the neutrino flow will grow with time.
Last days before the explosion the black hole will radiate neutrino with
energy 100 GeV and jÅ » 1010 m-2s-1.
The energy and
the neutrino flow will begin to grow sharply and last minutes the black
hole will radiate neutrino with energy up to 10 TeV, and the flow will be
j Å » 1012m-2s-1. The explosion of the black hole is finished by that that
in shares of a second the burst of neutrino with the energy more than 100
TeV [Òð11], [Tr05] happens.
there are many pre-explosive black holes, they must explode alone.
This is because
that with time the difference in masses of black holes influences more
strongly upon the processes of their evaporation. For black hole exploding
simultaneously, their masses must be equal with high degree of accuracy:
so, for black holes with masses of the order of 1011 kg the distinction in
the value of masses should not be more than one three-millionth. Thus,
black holes come to their finish (explosion) alone and the neutrino
radiation from them should start to stand out sharply from the neutrino
background formed by pre-explosive black holes.
research project must develop a practically feasible experiment on
registration of terrestrial MBH explosions. First, it concerns the
neutrino experiment, since preliminary theoretical developments concerning
neutrino radiation bursts from MBH explosions already exist. Secondly, it
is possible to put a question on the registration of massive particles
(leptons and adrons).
This is because
that in MBH exploding even at the centre of the Earth it is necessary to
expect the increased flow of particles with superhigh energy, since the
length of run of ultrarelativistic particles being born turns out to be
comparable with the size of the terrestrial radius. The third, the
superhard gravitational radiation from exploding MBH requires the analysis
of opportunity of its registration.
At last, in the
MBH exploding there should be seismic waves.
task of the project is the determination of neutrino flow through the
terrestrial surface and the number of absorption acts near the terrestrial
surface from MBH exploding in the centre of the Earth. Then it is
necessary to compare these features with the parameters of the available
equipment in the registration of superhigh energy neutrino in Dumand and
Baykal projects, and with those of other equipment in the registration of
superhigh energy particles too.
The problem of
registration of neutrino flow with quickly varying spectrum requires the
analysis: for fractions of a second the value of neutrino energy, from
exploding MBH can vary through order. The careful analysis of already
available experimental data on registrations of superhigh energy particles
will be required both for the reason of revealing neutrino bursts being
looked for, and determining possible restrictions on the MBH explosion
possibility of massive particle (leptons and adrons) registration is of
especial interest, since they are born in enormous number in MBH
exploding. This is because the length of run of ultrarelativistic
particles being born in the explosion becomes comparable with the radius
of the Earth, i.e., the possibility of their registration near the
terrestrial surface is opened.
registration of neutrino radiation from MBH and the determination of
neutrino energy can give the value of the MBH mass. It means, that the
time of MBH explosion, i.e., the time of arrival of ultrarelativistic
particles at the surface of the Earth, which have superhigh energies down
to Plankian values, can be predicted. The previous increase of neutrino
energy can be a "sign" of the MBH explosion to come.
registration of MBH explosions can open the way of solving the not less
important task, i.e., the experimental verification of the united physical
theory of all fundamental interactions.
of technical perfection of colliders for reaching sub-Plankian energies
are limited, and the question on natural sources of sub-Plankian energy
particles gets up inevitably. Nowadays small black holes are while single
objects known in science, which can produce sub-Plankian energy particles.
Terrestrial MBH can serve as important elements of a sort of "laboratory"
for verifying theories of the Grand Unification or
the probability of MBH explosions in the Earth is, the problem of their
registration deserves the most careful research, since it is only the way
to know anything about maximum large energy physics from the experiment.
are geophysical certificates of black hole evaporation and explosions,
some of which will be pointed out in short in the following
6.4. Relativistic geological
petroleum exploring and thermonuclear reactions in the terrestrial
of otons in the Earth must lead to geological consequences.
This is because
terrestrial surface regions, close to which black holes are located,
should be peculiar in the geological attitude, since oton influences can
be accumulated for a long time [Òð11].
deposits of useful natural resources mean the certain degree of
localization, which can be probably explained by some oton influences. In
geology the correlation of the ancient volcanism with any deposits of
useful natural resources was noted long ago. Since the volcanism can be
connected with the action of otons, and the localization of otonic
singularities in the Earth is ordered in certain way, it is possible to
predict the localization of deposits at the surface of the
in some sense, is the chemical anomaly, since its structure extremely
differs from the average chemical structure of space substance, in which
hydrogen and helium dominate.
explained by that that easy gases (hydrogen and helium) during the
evolution have been evaporated from the substance of the Earth. Howerver
abnormal amounts of an easy isotope of helium-3 detected in the
terrestrial interiors collides with the hypothesis about the evaporation
of helium, since helium-3 can be formed only in result of thermonuclear
this contradiction it is necessary to assume the terrestrial origin of
helium-3 as a result of thermonuclear reactions. It will help to eliminate
difficulties connected with the formation of some heavy elements [Òð16].
Therefore, it is not excluded, that in magmatic chambers of volcanoes the
element formation occurs, on which the correlation of 3Íå anomalies with
of fermi-otons can lead to the formation of transuranium element deposits.
The evaporation and explosions of black holes can reveal the mystery of
kimberlite pipes, with which the deposits of diamonds are connected
appropriate parameters can be sources of energy for the formation of
chemical compounds, gaseous and liquid energy carriers (hydrocarbons).
Revealing the spatial arrangement of otons in the Earth, relativistic
(otonic) geology can predict the localization of huge deposits of
petroleum and gas in non-traditional geological regions [Òð15]. In any
theory of the hydrocarbon origin (organic or inorganic) the source of
energy for their formation is required. Such sources can be
appearance of otons in the deposit of hydrocarbons should be accompanied
by variations of gravitational and electromagnetic fields, that brings
essentially new elements in geophysical exploration.
Otons can be
detected by these especial variations of physical fields. Moreover, the
detection of huge deposits of petroleum and gas near converting complexes
or megapolicies becomes possible [Òð15]. This will give not only the vast
incomes due to the sharp reduction of transport expenses, but also will
lead to the reduction of ecological catastrophe danger.
evaporations and explosions transform matter from its superdense state in
usual one, that leads to the grandiose expansion of volume occupied by
substance. Since in MBH evaporating (or their colliding) the significant
part of energy is carried away in space in the form of radiation -
(gravitational, neutrino and others), which weakly interacts with
terrestrial substance, it can result in the reduction of the total mass of
the Earth. All these properties of terrestrial otons can be involved to
explain the mechanism of expansion of the Earth, the idea of which is
introduced in one of the theories of geodynamics [Êý00].
to this geodynamic idea for 200 millions years the Earth should expand on
20 % from its initial volume.
expansion can provide the transition of substance from the otonic,
superdense state in usual one, which runs with the rate 108
kgs/sec. For providing the such speed of substance receipt from otons,
hundred millions evaporating black holes with Ìî =
109 kgs must be in the Earth simultaneously [Tr05].
mass spectrum of black holes providing the arrival of usual substance in
the Earth from otons can be the most different, as well as black hole
manifestations near the terrestrial surface can be so different.
Back to Contents
7 - Oton manifestations near the
7.1. Condition of the
terrestrial oton manifestation
How long does
it take a black hole to manifest itself in an arbitrary place on the
We shall regard
the region to be a sphere of the black hole manifestation, in which the
gravitational force of the black hole is equal to that of the Earth or
exceeds it (WBH ³ g). Further, we shall regard the total mass of N black
holes (for simplicity let us assume their masses to be equal) to be a kth
part of the mass of the Earth, and that VBH = V1sp.
these conditions and equated the volume of the Earth to that covered by
the moving black hole during the time tBH, we find the time, during which
the black hole will manifest itself in any arbitrary point of the
tBH = (2/3) × k-1N × RÅ ×
If one takes
account of influences from all N black holes and takes the upper limit on
the total mass of otons, the expression (7.1.1) accepts the
tBH = (2/3) × RÅ ×
It is easy to
see from (7.1.2.), that each ten minutes the arbitrary region appears in
the sphere of black hole influence.
At first sight,
it likely speaks about the insignificant number of black holes in the
Earth, since the so often influence of black holes, apparently,
contradicts our empirical experience. But nevertheless even so often black
hole influences are quite possible, because they are rather short-term
(for a black hole with the mass MBH = 1015 g the time is about
one ten thousands of a second) and negligible in consequences.
few black holes, degenerated orbits of which touch the terrestrial surface
in apocentre, have sufficiently low velocities for being able to make
significant influences upon the nearest to their trajectory objects.
thousandth of these manifestations has a chance of their being observable.
Nevertheless, there are numerous phenomena, which tell about possible
black hole manifestations, since extremely unusual otonic manifestations
have sometimes a grandiose character.
One of such
phenomena is the Tungus "meteorite".
7.2. The Tungus phenomenon
The first (and
for a long time single) attempt to explain terrestrial phenomena by the
model of black holes has been undertaken in 1973 by the American
scientists Jackson and Ryan [Ja00], who have put a question: whether the Tungus accident was
caused by a black hole?
Within the idea
of extraplanetary origin of single "naked" black holes the authors have
considered an episodic black hole manifestation, by means of which they
tried to explain the Tungus phenomenon.
The black hole not leaving
neither a crater, nor remnants of meteorite substance, this explains the
basic feature of the Tungus phenomenon: the absence of asteroid remnants.
The extraterrestrial origin of a black hole, high velocity, small energy
losses in its passing through the Earth - all this leads to that, that the
trajectory of a black hole should be very close to the direct line.
This implies a
prediction of black hole exiting in the antipodal region of the Earth and
its similar manifestations in this region. A region with coordinates
40°-50° N, 30°-40° W is in northern Atlantic. The point of black hole
exiting enables to verify the hypothesis as a whole. In this point the
other air shock wave, the undersea shock wave and the disturbance of sea
surface must be observed.
But the similar phenomenon compared by
the power with the Tungus event was not detected. Such explanation of the
Tungus accident has caused a doubt [Be00].
Intraterrestrial black holes do not require similar antipodal
manifestations and quite can be used for explaining not only the Tungus
phenomenon, but also many others, in particular,
7.3. Tornadoes as
effects produced by otons it is possible to refer the phenomena of the
kind of a whirlwind (or a tornado), which physical nature till now remains
the riddle [Êà10], [Êî00], [Õå00].
The destructive force of a
tornado was improbable great for objects having low sailness. Here are
only few examples of tornado action. Notwithstanding terrestrial
attraction and absence of any significant sailness of stones with the mass
more than 100 kg were carried away at hundred meters. A tornado raised and
threw various houses and even the large iron bridge.
church was raised from the ground and transferred at 4 meters. The
transporting and elevating force of tornadoes evidently resists to
gravitational one: rises and transferences of roofs, large trees, logs,
stones, people and animals were observed repeatedly in different
The behavior of tornadoes corresponds to the feature of
small black hole motion near the terrestrial surface [Òð09]. As judged by
width of a tornado crater, otons with masses more than 1020 g should
correspond to that. If the velocity of a black hole motion relative to the
terrestrial surface is minimal, their action turns out to be maximal:
gravitational whirlwinds have the time for their developing, and
transferences of objects and so on turn out to be
Occurring unexpectedly near to the terrestrial surface
and moving in the direction of the Earth rotation approximately with the
same velocity, small black holes for a short time, as though, hang over
the ground. The orbit of a black hole temporarily becomes
The appearance of a tornado is preceded by the
rare combination of atmospheric conditions, especial parameters of
fermi-otonic system as a force nucleus, the vector of grassiphoton
velocity and the plane of the system orbit rotation.
combinations of conditions above provide not only the diversity of
tornadoes' forms, but also other phenomena. If masses are small or
velocities are large, otons are able not to result in tornado formation
under the most favorable for this phenomenon atmospheric conditions, but
they can make significant influences upon firm bodies near of the oton
Gravi -impulsive destructions of buildings in cities
are characteristic in this respect.
7.4. Gravi-impulsive destructions of buildings
In cities the
black hole has in one thousand times more chances to be noticed, than in
an arbitrary part of the terrestrial surface.
of multi-storey building in city by black hole can not remain unnoticed.
The probability of hit in a building is proportional to cube of the linear
size, and hence, skyscrapers (for example, the Trading Centre in New York,
the federal building in Oklahoma-city) are rather good targets for black
holes. Besides of direct witnesses of similar events, both inhabitants of
city, and inhabitants of the planet through mass media can learn about
In cities of the whole world destructions of buildings happen
constantly, and a lot of such events are caused by local gravitational
blowes. Only in Moscow annually there occur 10-15 local, gravitational
"earthquakes", some of which have rather unusual nature and lead to
destruction of houses. Let us mention only one distinctive case, about
which mass media informed [Áà10].
December 25, 1967, about 21 hours
and 30 minutes, in Moscow under the house ¹ 77 in Osipenko Street two
powerful gravi-pushes have happened one after other, which have destroyed
a five-story building. About 200 persons have perished according to some
data. Eyewitnesses certify, that some blocks of the house have thrown out
on neighbor streets together with tenants, the people hangs on trees, the
house has risen in air, has hang on an instant, and only then has
tell, that during the incident they have been lifted to the
In the case given the inversion of the gravitational force
caused by the short-term appearance of a black hole is obvious. However,
it is necessary to note again, that the action of gravitation from a black
hole has impulsive nature, and bodies feel not a constant acceleration,
but specific gravitational pushes (see Section 5.1.).
And here is, if
gravimeters and variometers have synchronously registered OGI, the
gravitational nature of building destruction would find the fundamental
experimental substantiation. Thus, all the technogeneous environment and
city’s building can be independent certificates of black hole
Explosions of volcanoes and earthquakes are not
attributed until to criminals (the whole humankind has not the necessary
amount of energy), but one try to attribute accidents of smaller scales to
technogeneous or human factors.
In destroying buildings by
gravi-impulses there are numerous certificates of gravitational force
inversions down to those that buildings rose and hung on an instant in
air. But the event in the town Sasovo of Ryazan region was one more bright
phenomenon of such kind.
Geophysical explosion in Sasovo
"explosion", which has happened near the town Sasovo of Ryazan region
[×å20], [ÕÕ01], April, 12, 1991, 1h34m, is of interest. In establishments,
houses, schools, hospitals, at many enterprises frames have flown, glasses
have dislodged, doors were deformed by the explosion.
A large crater
(28 meters in the diameter and 4 meters in the depth) remained in the
place of event. The crater is surprisingly round with large (3 meters in
the diameter) hillock in the middle.
One of the first versions was
the explosion of saltpeter, which in amount over thirty tons was on the
place of event. However, for exploding saltpeter, which by its power is
equal to explosion of 25 tons of TNT, an intermediate detonator of huge
power is necessary. Nevertheless, neither traces of explosion, nor traces
of saltpeter itself at the place of Sasovo explosion has not appeared.
Other versions, i.e., the explosion of "vacuum" bomb, the fall of
meteorite and others, also do not hold critique.
Probably, the only
physical model, which is able nowadays to explain a variety of unusual
physical phenomena observed in Sasovo, is the flight of a small black hole
with the mass about thousand billions tons from beneath the Earth. The
majority of Sasovo phenomenon riddles can be explained by the features of
gravitational field of a black hole, which has flown near
So, a black hole flying from beneath the terrestrial
surface in the beginning strengthens locally the gravitational field of
the Earth, but then, attracting to itself the substance, it counteracts to
A black hole
force of attraction can be locally in many orders more than the
terrestrial one. Moving upwards, the black hole seizes and carries away
environmental substance. The crater symmetry is explained by the radial
nature of gravitation. A hillock in the middle is a place of exiting of an
oton, which pulls out behind itself substance from the terrestrial
A black hole
force of attraction, smoothly varying with distance, gradually stops its
influence on pulled out pieces of ground, and they fluently land on a
surface. Here a kind of antigravitation acts locally in the beginning
(which exceeds the force of gravitation from a black hole), but then the
black hole force of gravitation smoothly weakens, and the Earth’s
gravitation begins to dominate.
local turn of gravitational force explains the people ejection from beds
at a moment of event. At the centre of black hole passage the force of
gravitation was so great, that about two thousands tons of substance were
A relative rarity of events like Sasovo’s event,
probably, speaks about a lunar-terrestrial nature of oton orbit.
presence of considerable number of otons (flows, swarms of black holes),
having similar trajectories, explains the especial feature of the Moon’s
influence on a person: there is an increased density of otons in this
catastrophes of planes
of black hole influence on subjects is proportional to cube of their
linear sizes. Ships and planes in this sense are relatively nonbad
direct hit is unnecessary: it is enough for a plane to appear even for a
second in a zone of the black hole gravitational force supremacy, and it
will be underbid by an otonic graviimpulse (see Section 5.1.). An OGI
(otonic gravitational impulse) vector can form any angle with a vector of
OGI influence can be different: the plane can be thrown downwards, on the
ground, or it can be thrown high upwards, its velocity can vary through
inverse or increase considerably. More weak gravi-pushes, not resulting in
catastrophic consequences, must be more frequent and ordinary events (for
example, the effect of "air pillows" kind).
In a case of strange
aircraft catastrophes (À-310 in Mezhdurechensk, Tu-154 in Khabarovsk edge,
IL-76 on Kamchatka, the aircraft accident, which has resulted in perishing
Ju. Gagarin, the first cosmonaut of the Earth) and disappearances of
planes [Êó10] terrestrial black holes can be regarded as the possible
cause of these tragic events.
Now we shall stop on such like a
clear phenomenon, as a collision. For clashing casually the plane with
another one, they are necessary to fly simultaneously and continuously
during hundred millions years. If one takes into account all the planes,
being in air simultaneously, the time before the collision will decrease
in few orders, but all the same it will remain large enough.
time of a plane presence in an air corridor near the airport is in few
orders less than the total time of flight, therefore its account should
not change the situation fundamentally. For clashing planes, the sniper
art and the desire of a team at least of one of the planes are necessary.
However, if a force centre (black hole) happened between planes, the
planes will go on rapprochement in a direction of common for them
attractive centre, i.e., black hole, despite probabilistic estimations and
the will of pilots.
If OGI is
sufficiently large, the clash is inevitable. Having appeared between
planes at the distance of hundred meters, the black hole with sizes of an
atom for fractions of a second can lead to a catastrophic clash of planes.
There is a number of such events in aircraft.
We shall cite only
one recent instance: the clash of two planes in 75 kilometers from Delhi
on November 12, 1996. This accident is one of the largest in the whole
history of aircraft: Saudi "Boeing-747" and Kazakhstan Il-76 have clashed
in air [Îð00], [Ñå00], [Áå00].
The brief chronicle of the incident
is such. Fifteen minutes have passed from the moment of start.
"Boeing-747" has taken height quickly and has headed for
In this moment
Il-76, which went on landing, has appeared unexpectedly so close to
"Boeing" (though a difference of heights of air corridors was more than
250 meters), that it was already impossible to prevent accident. The clash
has happened about 19 o’clock of the local time on height of about five
kilometers. According to words of eyewitnesses, the strong explosion
occurred in evening sky, and two planes, instantly having turned in fiery
balls, have fallen on the ground at the distance of few kilometers from
Several versions of reasons of this tragic event were
put forward. All these reasons and a circuit of casual mistakes in the
aggregate could only decline planes from a route.
But a sniper’s
hitting of one plane in another due to mistake is just already incredible.
It is obvious only that for incomprehensible reasons the planes have
appeared not just in one air corridor, but in the same point and in the
same time, which is extremely improbable. It is obvious for everybody, who
is familiar with difficulties of deciding the task of "meeting" in
However, it is
clear even from a common experience, as far as difficult is hitting the
target, especially, if it is object, moving with large
For example, the clash of the cargo ship "Progress" with
the orbital complex "Mir" on June 25, 1997 is but comprehensible: a
link-up of the cargo ship means a rapprochement with the orbital complex.
Though, it is not everything obvious here: such has not been during 11
years of existence of the orbital complex, that the cargo ship has lost
control and clashed with the station.
of planes, naturally, had no desire to make the such "link-up", and it is
incomprehensible at all, why it nevertheless has occurred against the will
of two crews.
The situation varies cardinally in a case of presence
of one attraction centre between planes, i.e., a black hole. According to
the law of universal gravitation, planes must inevitably tend towards one
attraction centre, and, hence, towards one another. Even a short-term
(tenth parts of a second) presence of a black hole with a size about
atomic between planes, which are in nearby air corridors, will result in
their inevitable clash. Some bodies of perished and splinters of planes
could be carried away by a black hole far from a place of
For clashing a cargo ship with the station "Mir" (a
distance between them is much smaller) thousandth part of a second is
sufficient. In certain conditions terrestrial black holes can influence
trajectory of car motion, leading, in particular, to accidents of cars.
exclude, that the fatal for princess Diana declination of the car
Mercedes-Benz from its trajectory of motion at night from the 30th to 31st
of August 1997 was caused by power effect of a terrestrial black hole.
clashes in water environment are not less mysterious, than in
accidents in the world ocean
statistics of ship clashes are much more rich, than those of planes.
So, only last
three years there were three clashes of the largest tankers transporting
crude oil and oil products, [Êí00]. The appearing between ships a common
for them attraction force centre, i.e., a black hole, results in that
clashes of ships nevertheless occur in defiance of the will and the mind
of people, and of insignificant probability.
Let us pay attention
to an important circumstance: in cases considered OGI is short-term and it
has no time in air (or in water) to create a tornado (or crater). But the
significant pulse can be transferred to firm bodies.
A direct clash
of a sea vessel with a black hole brings its features in that, which has
occurred. Let us consider only one distinctive example of recent time: the
tanker "Nakhodka" perishing in 1997. In the night from the 1st to the 2nd
of January at 3 o'clock 40 minutes in the Japanese sea this tanker has
broken on two parts [Îñ00], [Êí00], [Ôð20].
After a storm
wave blow (or after something else) on body of " Nakhodka" its forward
part has been broken off. Many experts assert categorically, that the
vessel of 170 meters length, and of 20 meters width and setting, cannot be
broken even by the most abrupt wave. It is needed a blow of such power,
which is equivalent to a rock appearance on a way of a vessel.
conclusion of the Russian sea register of navigation, which is the supreme
arbitrator in a fleet technical estimation states: "It is possible to
assert with a large probability, that the break of the vessel body has
occurred not because of bad technical conditions of body’s links or lacks
of its general durability". The tanker "Nakhodka" was insured by 700
millions dollars (according to other messages, by 500 millions dollars) in
the English insurance company "Tomas Miller".
definitely testifies the Russian party to be interested in the version of
external reasons of accident.
However, despite the partiality of
participants of the discussion the question stays the same: why the tanker
all the same has been broken? Various experts are interested in it,
including scientists, which present different reasons of the tanker
"Nakhodka" perishing in the Japanese sea [Ôð20].
According to the
opinion of V.Petrenko, the laboratory manager of Pacific geography
institute, "Nakhodka" has become a victim of a wave-"murderer" [Ôð20].
Statistics gives a number of sea accidents caused by blowes of waves-
"murderers", which break down vessels asunder. But nature of
waves-"murderers" themselves stays unopened.
holes can both produce local water anomalies (water poles, tornadoes,
whirlpools, "waves-murderer" and others), and inflict death blow on sea
vessels. A gravitational force of black holes can surpass locally that of
the Earth in many orders (see Section 5.1.) and play a role of a suddenly
arisen "rock" on a way of the tanker "Nakhodka".
The blow from
OGI can be directed only on a local site of a sea vessel, resulting, thus,
in its breaking off. By means of two such events, knowing coordinates and
the time, one can predict further wanderings of “a black hole-murderer"
and prove the natural character of the accident of the tanker "Nakhodka".
But the modern
technical civilization has also much larger objects, which can be subject
to destructive influences of black holes.
7.8. Technosphere of the Earth as a black hole
influences of black holes upon various objects of nature, frequently, can
hardly be separated on a background of other natural factors action, their
influence upon various objects of technosphere cannot stay unnoticed.
part of natural objects is outside any permanent control and supervision
by a person. But objects of technosphere are under continuous supervision
by a person and (or) by technical means of control. So that any
technosphere objects deviation from their normal functioning attracts
There goes a constant growth, increase of
technosphere objects, that is, all greater number of more large power
stations, factories, plants, processing complexes is put into effect, the
number and the range of water -, gas -, oil-pipelines, etc. grow.
Proportionally to the increased technosphere volume a probability of
destructive influences from terrestrial black holes grows too.
the same time the conversance of a society has increased sharply due to
developing of electronic mass media and it continues to grow. Thus, not
only the number of technical accidents, but also conversance about them
grow. Terrestrial black holes, manifesting themselves rather locally and
rapidly, could not find out themselves earlier so obviously, as now, in
conditions of the developed technical civilization with a high level of
mass media development.
As it will be taken notice in the following
chapter, in the past of the terrestrial civilization in conditions of mass
media absence adequate information on the largest accident in one of
centers of the terrestrial civilization in the Mediterranean sea was lost.
It was the
explosion of Santorini volcano, being equal by power to the explosion of
one million nuclear bombs, which have been blown up in Hiroshima.
Consequences of this explosion have resulted in decline of the
civilization of Crete. Now events, which are in many orders less in a
scale, become known practically to the whole humankind.
only nowadays due to developing mass media more frequent detections of
less significant manifestations of terrestrial black holes have become
possible. Moreover, traces of terrestrial black holes stay in
technosphere, and traces at times rather tragical.
tragedy is recalled first.
A number of circumstances of failure on
the Tshernobyl APS April 26, 1986 is possible to explain by passage of a
black hole through it. These are: a specificity of the 3-rd block
foundation breakup; a phosphorescence over the APS, having been observed
before the explosion; a formation of local cloud over the Tshernobyl
region; an underground hum before the explosion; some certificates of
gravitational force local inversion and of seismic push.
In this case a
combined influence of a black hole was possible: gravitational and black
hole radiations could initiate the APS explosion.
enlarging its volume technosphere is subjected all greater threat from
terrestrial black holes. Constant communication is supported with ships
and planes, and their movement is traced. Therefore, a fact of their
disappearance fixation is usual. Nevertheless, a number of other objects
(including objects of technosphere) can vanish without traces, but traces
of black holes in technosphere in that or another form
Terrestrial black holes can be a cause of the most various
accidents and failures in objects of technosphere (in systems of water
supply, electrosupply, gas supply, warm-supply, water drain,
communications, in various buildings and constructions, in factories,
plants, in various enterprises). Certainly, there is a number of other
reasons of all these phenomena, and, most likely, the otonic factor is not
the first. But the analysis of all these phenomena, whether they have
otonic nature, did not enter into a task of this work. While we shall take
notice here only two important circumstances.
The first. The more
and more growing gas- and oil-pipelines by their spatial volume become
comparable with cities. It means that the probability of black hole hit in
them is comparable to that for cities. Therefore, in designing and
operating gas- and oil-pipelines it is necessary to take into account such
a natural factor, as terrestrial black holes.
The second. Besides
unique gravitational manifestations of terrestrial otons it is necessary
to take into account a black hole radiation (see Section 1.1 and Chapter
As one can see
from Table 6.2.1, terrestrial black holes are the source of electrons and
positrons, and it can result in various electrical manifestations. In a
sense they represent a kind of "power stations", which are possible to
serve for the boon of humankind in the future. If otons are centres of
condensation of storm clouds, the passage of a black hole can initiate
The nature of
fireballs is possible to be caused by fermiotons.
holes are microscopic sources of huge energy, and a kind of thermal
anomalies. In their moving they transfer heat to an environment. Thus, the
warming up can be so considerable, that an ignition of things occurs. Some
fires are possible to be initiated by passage of such the black holes.
There are numerous certificates of fires in multi-story buildings, when
simultaneous ignitions on several floors have being happened.
black hole passage through a building can be a cause of practically
simultaneous ignitions on several floors. But there are cases of else more
amazing fires: it is self-ignitions of people, which will be a subject of
the next Section.
Spontaneous [sp O n'te I n I q s] Human['hju:m q
n]Combustion[k q m'b A s C ( q )n] - SHC[es, e I C ,si:]
death - [ " s A dn'de T ]
Spontaneous people self-ignitions energetics and a sudden
Cases of people
self-ignition are known for a long time [Ãî00], [Êà00], [Ëå20],
[ÎÍ00],[Ñà40], [Ëà10], [ÕÕ00], but antique sources mentioned them in
rather mythological expressions. Till now for official science the
phenomenon of people self-ignition is no more, than a myth.
centuries messages on the mysterious phenomenon of a person self-ignition
have being appeared. The alive, healthy person all but instantly
transforms to ashes (or coal-like mass), but surround things and even
clothe of burned person turned out to be not touched by
Hundred cases of people self-ignition were registered, and
rare who has survived. The majority of victims instantly burned under
influence of a mysterious, super-power flame, and in quite different
conditions: in an armchair, in a bed, in a car, in a forest, in a street
and even on a dance pavilion.
The phenomenon of a person
self-ignition seemed incomprehensible, since in science for a long time
there were no theoretical constructions, capable to explain this
phenomenon. The fact is that a human body is not combustible material: it
consists in two thirds of water. A human body is impossible to ignite, as
straw or kerosene.
The process of
spontaneous combustion of a person does not lead to energy extraction, but
on the contrary, it requires it in vast amounts. As minimum all water
should instantly evaporate. Complete combustion of a human body will need
few hours and temperature more than 1300 K°: such conditions are created
specially in crematorium for burning corpses.
imagine, what the vast amount of energy should instantly appear in a
person to transform him to an alive torch.
XVIIIth century rather detailed descriptions of a phenomenon of
self-ignition begin to appear with detailed reports of physicians and
inspectors [Êà00], [Ëå20]. The skeptical attitude of scientists to the
very fact of a phenomenon reality is comprehensible: rare events of people
self-ignitions occur not in scientific laboratories at the appointed time,
but at an arbitrary time.
Herewith the conditions of the such
phenomenon one cannot reproduce. Not always there are witnesses of such
events, and if they are, certificates of eyewitnesses of the rapid,
extreme phenomenon, naturally, turned out far from ideals of scientific
report about a realization of beforehand planned experiment.
event of a person self-ignition, which for the first time has received
wide popularity, and was officially registered in press and judicial
documents, has happened in 1725 in the French city Reims[Ãî00],
Later the description of this event has got in "the
Encyclopaedic dictionary", issued in Berlin in 1843, and it has become the
first in history a rather authentic certificate of a person self-ignition.
Nowadays there are hundred certificates of these instant tragical
In the majority of cases a part of body (sometimes a half)
stays not touched by fire. Limbs (legs or hands) are often conserved. The
self-combustion results in two types of remnants: a body transforms either
to ashes, or in caked, coal-like mass. The localization of self-ignition
process inside a body is a feature of the phenomenon given.
local fire sometimes embraces only human body and can not touch even
clothe or bed, in which a victim sleeps.
process the enormous intensity of a flame develops, in which a body
practically instantly transforms into ashes, and bones melt. Even in
crematorium such is not observed after many hours. The intensity of the
process is so great, that people have no time to make at all any attempts
to take refuge (to call the help or to run to the water).
intensive process of combustion of a body requires so great amount of
energy, which is merely absent in a human body in free, untied form.
Obviously, energy required should appear from outside, and the very moment
of its arrival is subjectively perceived as "a thermal explosion from
Since Lebich many experts were engaged in this phenomenon,
and there are different attempts to explain it[Ãî00], [Êà00], [Ëå20],
[ÎÍ00],[Ñà40], [Ëà10], [ÕÕ00], though till now messages about this
phenomenon seemed much doubtful for many scientists.
A reason of low
scientific validity of the messages about a phenomenon of people
self-ignition consists in the very nature of this phenomenon, i.e., in its
rapidity, locality, unpredictability, unreproducability. Moreover,
remnants of self-ignitions themselves are short-lived and usually not
exposed to any serious scientific examination. From flabbergasted
witnesses of these instant tragedies one cannot expect any scientifically
However, within the scientific research
carried out there is no especial necessity for empirical descriptions of
the phenomenon given.
The fact is
that in the idea of terrestrial black holes an oton influence upon a
person is predicted [Òð00-16]. In particular, the effect of a person
self-ignition is simulated too. Irrespective of all these descriptions the
effect of energetic influence of black hole radiation upon terrestrial
objects has been predicted (from hardly detectable thermal anomalies and
fireballs up to thermonuclear reactions and grandiose volcanic phenomena
Let us consider a terrestrial micro-black hole, which
orbit apocentre is above the terrestrial surface. Let us first estimate
the value of energy needing for incineration of person (Qm). For complete
combustion it is necessary as a minimum to heat instantly and evaporate
water, the basic component of a human body.
Thus, the value
Qm forms from the value Q D T° , that is from heat needed for warming
water up to the boiling point, and Qo, that is heat needed for evaporating
The order of
value is easily determined from the expression:
= Q D T ° + Qo = Mm(k D T ° + q),
Mm = 5*104 g. Substituting known coefficients, we
obtain the order of value Qm ~ 1015 erg. From the
expression (6.2.1.) and table (6.2.1.) one can see, that terrestrial black
holes can wholly extract practically instantly in rather local regions the
amount of energy required.
For black holes in a range of masses
1017 g > Ì > 5*1014 g the formula for total
radiation power has the form:
(7.9.2) the value close to Qm = 1015 erg is obtained. However,
it is necessary to take into account the following.
electrons and positrons, which share of the radiated energy is 45%, carry
away energy mainly outside, and the inconsiderable part only can be
transferred to a human body.
particles the power of radiation carried away is distributed as follows:
1% of energy radiated is carried away by gravitons, 45% is by neutrinos,
which interact with substance weakly like gravitons, and only 9% of energy
radiated is carried away by photons, but they are superhard g -quanta,
which energy only partially can be absorbed by a human body. In the
condition of a rapid black hole passage (Ì > 1014 g) through
a person the otonic energy extracted during this time ( D t <
10-4 s) can be insufficient for complete combustion. Therefore,
a black hole of else smaller mass (PBH ~
MBH-2) is necessary.
For masses in a range
1014 g < Ì < 1013,5 g the power of black hole
radiation is estimated by the expression:
The energy ( D
ÅBH), which will be extracted in a human body during the time
(t) of instant black hole flight, will be
defined by the expression D ÅBH = PBH · D
Let us take notice at once, that though a considerable part of
black hole radiation in the form of neutrinos, gravitons and other
particles with considerable length of free run will again freely leave in
space, but more massive particles, i.e., nucleons (12%), which more
effectively are absorbed by a human body, will appear in
It is enough for an effect of self-ignition, when MBH £
1014 g, that energy extracted by a black hole in its passing
through a person was absorbed. Thus, micro-black holes explain the
energetics of person self-ignitions.
a degree of reliability of available certificates of self-ignition
phenomenon, this effect is predicted within the idea of terrestrial black
holes. Like other phenomena caused by moving terrestrial black holes, a
self-ignition differs by rapidity, locality and difficult
Let us estimate the order of temperature value in
the hearth epicenter of self-ignition, i.e., in a black hole.
This value is
defined by the expression:
BH = hc3(8 p Gk)-1M-1 ~ 1,2
× 1026K ° (M g)-1. (7.9.4.)
A black hole
(MBH £ 1014 g), providing the person combustion, has
T°BH ³ 1012 Ê ° , that is over thousand billions
degrees. The instant nature of self-ignitions become comprehensible under
such grandiose gradient of temperatures. The otonic model of people
self-ignition explains other riddles of this phenomenon too.
instant flight ( D t < 10-4 s) of a black hole
(MBH £ 1014 g) and the injection of energy
(Qm ~ 1015 erg) inside human body gives effect "of
internal explosion", "of thermal stroke from inside", about what there are
direct certificates of participants of these instant tragical
This energy, connected with a vast gradient of
temperatures, which are more than billions degrees on a centimeter (in the
epicenter of internal thermal "explosion" T°BH ³
1012 Ê ° ), results in a superheat thermal wave, which, being
distributed instantly to a body surface, immediately burns all on its way.
Certainly, under such temperatures the unusual fire arises, which does not
give, at times, even a smoke.
At the same time, energy Qm =
1015 erg suffices only for process of person combustion,
because in this process the energy is absorbed, instead of its giving away
outside. Therefore, often during a self-ignition process a person (or its
part) instantly burns down, but up to surround things and even up to
clothes the superfast thermal wave, having given away all the energy to
human bodies and fabrics, cannot reach.
In black hole passing in
air, which density in few orders is less than that of human body
substance, black hole radiation leads to much less energy effect.
Therefore, around victim of self-ignition, effects of ignition are either
absent, or they are negligible.
A person simply is not capable to
react to so fast, rash process of the internal thermal wave distribution,
and, therefore, it is not amazing, that the complete person helplessness
before its self-ignition is registered practically in all descriptions of
this phenomenon. This picture of the process is correct even if the value
of energy is of the order D ÅBH ~ Qm =
If D ÅBH << Qm,
only a small part of a human body burns, and that can occur without any
external manifestations. The process turns out to be localized deeply
inside a person. Consequences for a person in a case of such the black
hole passage through him ( D ÅBH << Qm) can be
Firstly, they can be lethal. If vital organs or fabrics
burn away, a person perishes. A number of sudden deaths of practically
healthy people happens in the world, and that resulted in appearance the
notion of “sudden death" in medicine [Âí00], [Âî30]. Some of them are
possible to be caused by black holes.
The number of
deceased per a year is expressed by the value of the order
5*107, it was equal to 56 millions people in 1975 [Óð00], and
6,2 million of them have died under not quite realized circumstances.
Otons as the cause of sudden death are the most suitable candidates,
since, striking suddenly a person, they do not leave practically any
traces. If this version is correct, otons are the greatest murderers of
Secondly, they can be pathological. If self-ignitions
lead to pathological, but not lethal changes in internal organs and
fabrics, temporary or constant illnesses can appear (sudden illnesses are
usual phenomena). At last, they can be painless. In a case the effect from
black hole radiation in its flying through a person is of the same order,
as from cosmic, background one, and a person does not feel something
If D ÅBH >> Qm, a human body
burns together with all surroundings. From outside it looks as a usual
fire. Herewith, nobody are especially surprised by a scorched corpse.
Moreover, nobody are surprised by a case, when during self-ignition the
only ashes stays from a person, which are lost on a background of whole
site of fire.
As it was
noticed in Section 7.8, there can be fires, when simultaneous ignitions on
several floors of a building happen. Apparently, the list of different
types of fires, which reason can be black hole radiation, is possible to
continue: ignitions of tankers, ships, planes, automobiles, oil and gas
depositories, warehouses of an ammunition and other combustible objects,
wood fires and others.
Besides of black hole radiation the oton
gravitational field itself can influence directly upon a person.
holes can be both outside a person, and inside. If a black hole is adown,
under large values of attraction force a person can be simply crushed (a
person cannot sustain even a short-term overload more than 100 g [Êí10]).
There are messages in a seal that not only people, but also houses fall
If a black hole is overhand, under certain conditions
a person ascension upwards ("fall in to the sky") is possible. There are
various certificates of "ascensions on heaven", including religious
At last, gravitational (otonic) bullets can suddenly pierce a
person. It is possible to estimate gravitational influences of different
mass otons during that or another time upon those or other internal organs
of a person. For example, it is possible to try to answer a question: what
will be, if a black hole in billion tons will appear in human heart? Thus,
it is possible to speak about otonic (gravitational) factor of human
Let us estimate the time (tBH), in which a
micro-black hole having the velocity vBH = vsp, will
get a person (i.e., one of Nm people) taken arbitrary, which has
cross-section (Sm ~ 10-1 m2). In this time the black
hole with the area Sm should cover whole the volume of the
Earth (VÅ = (4/3) × p R3Å ).
conditions this time will be defined as follows:
= V Å (vBHSm Nm)-1
(7.9.5) known values, we obtain tBH ~ 106 s.
It means, that
each half-month a black hole can fall into person. Thus, the presence of
even one black hole with parameters required is enough to explain
available frequency of self-ignitions. Certainly, not tangent hits, but
end-to-end intrapersonal trajectories are necessary, which would be
maximum long and deep, that these black hole hits result in maximum
naturally, are less.
In invisible war of black holes against person
there are more victims than in global wars. Nothing in the world can
protect against black holes, there is no place to be hidden from them.
Sudden death from "gravitational killers" waits for everybody. How one can
avoid a fatal meeting with a black hole-"murderer"? One can run away from
it in places far from the otonic trajectory, having calculated the
trajectory of a black hole-"murderer".
The certain number of black
holes with the appropriate parameters can explain unexplained fires and
strange sudden death. From expression (7.9.5.) it follows, that appearance
even one new black hole, which orbit apocentre is close to the terrestrial
surface, should be reflected in statistics of appropriate phenomena.
Moreover, knowing a chain of the same events, that is, knowing the time
and coordinates of black hole appearance near the terrestrial surface (as
the minimum it is necessary to know parameters of two such events), one
can predict in principle these phenomena in the future, in that or another
place in the Earth.
Thus, like the forecast of weather there is a
possibility to forecast self-ignitions, fires and accidents caused by
otons. It means, that one can counteract these tragedies and be rescued
from a fatal meeting with "a black hole-murderer". Moreover, one can prove
the natural origin of many technogenic accidents, which were earlier
written off onto technical reasons or human factor.
combustion (complete or partial disappearance) of internal human organs
and fabrics, both with lethal end, and without it are predicted within the
idea of terrestrial black holes.
and careful investigation of cases of sudden death can confirm this
Black hole radiation should result in the effect of
induced radio-activity in that or another form. This also can be checked
up in operative investigation of a place of event in respect of
Radiation of a black hole (7.9.3.) with Ì <<
1014 g should contain particles, predicted in the various
united theories of Great Unification, hence, the phenomenon of
self-ignition (as well as its relics) is of direct interest for physics of
elementary particles. Final stages of black hole radiation, i.e.,
grandiose explosions, in which Plankian particles are born and accidents
of planetary scale occur, are of the greatest interest in this respect.
It is that we
shall discuss in the following chapter.
Catastrophes of planetary scale
8.1. Localization of energy is
the main problem of volcanology
objects of General Relativity, i.e., otons, have found wide application in
astrophysics for explaining various sorts of space phenomena connected
with huge energy extractions.
The problem of
energy sources stays sharply not only in high energy astrophysics, in
physics of planets and the Earth, but even in energetics of people
self-ignitions (see Section 7.9.).
So, the idea of black holes has
passed from the most distant objects of the Universe up to the person
itself: from deepest riddles of space up to deepest secrets of human body.
The problem consists not in amount of extracted energy, but in mechanisms
of its localization in very small volumes. Grandiose as the distinction in
scales of these phenomena is, the universal answer to challenging secrets
of the world is single: otons.
A wide range of
oton masses gives possibility of understanding different-scale phenomena,
explaining thus the main for all these phenomena problem, i.e., the
question on energy localization.
Black hole energy can actuate
plates in the mantle, cause earthquakes, but, in the main, it can be a
point-like source ("heat point") of volcano energy. Having connected the
energy source of volcano magmatic cells with micro-black holes, one can
estimate the neutrino flow at the terrestrial surface, which turns out to
be rather considerable.
flow from black holes is sufficiently unique: it consists of flows of six
neutrino types, which have equal powers. Let us estimate the
The energy source power can be determined from available
estimations of energy, wasted for volcano constructing, and from its age.
E.g., for the Cluchevskoy volcano [Ra00] these quantities are equal,
erg and 5103 years < < 8103 years. For the
lower limit of age we have the upper estimation for energy source power:
erg s-1. The total power of black hole radiation is summed up from the sum
of different particles powers:
PBH = Pg + P n + P g
+ Pe = (kg + k n + k g +
ke)PBH , (8.1.1.)
kg + k n + k g + ke = 1 ;
kg = 0.009; kv = 0.549; k g = 0,076
; ke = 0.366.
A part of the energy from a black hole is
carried away by gravitons and neutrinos.
Only the energy
of g -radiation, relativistic electrons and positrons can be the volcano
energy source. However, in this case only a part of energy is used: in
interacting g -rays, relativistic electrons and positrons with substance
neutrinos can be formed, which besides carry away energy freely.
The account of
these effects can increase the upper estimation of black hole power, but
it does not influence its lower one, of which we shall take
Pvol = (k g + ke)PBH
account (8.1.1) and (8.1.2) the radiation power of each neutrino type will
be determined by the expression:
n = (k n /6) (k g +
introduces some master black hole with Ì0 = 1015 g,
the rate of neutrino radiation (Nv) with energy (Ev)
will be connected with other black hole parameters by
Ì0 = 1015 g, Ò0 = 2*1011
Êî, Ð0 = 6,3*1016 ergs-1,
Åî= 2,1*10‑5 erg (13 MeV), N 0 =
2,7*1020 s-1 . The neutrino spectrum from a black
hole is continuous, and the maximum number of neutrinos has in it energy
Let us estimate black hole parameters required for
the Cluchevskoy volcano energetics.
we shall determine the power of black hole radiation:
PBH = (k g + ke)-1
Pvol » 18,1*1016 erg*s-1.
and (8.1.5.) we shall determine a black hole mass:
g , (8.1.6.)
temperature in the magmatic hearth is , Ê.
Neutrinos with energy
erg (22,5 MeV),
radiated from such black hole at the rate
energy from the black hole given is close to that of boron neutrino (for
boron-8 Å = 14,06 ÌeV), for which in the Davies chlorine-argon experiment
of solar neutrino registration the cross-section of seizer by chlorine
(Cl37) is most considerable: 1,35*10-42 sm2
of neutrino flow from black holes at the terrestrial surface () and the number of absorption acts () is resulted below . The neutrino flow
from the master black hole at the distance R0 = 105
sm is equal to sm-2s-1 , that in
three orders surpasses the boron neutrino flow from the Sun.
decreases with distance as:
and at R >
107 sm the neutrino flow from a micro-black hole becomes less
than the flow of boron neutrino from the Sun, i.e., the neutrino flow is
considerable only near volcanoes.
the magmatic cells location depth of volcanoes give values from several
kilometers up to 100 kilometers [Ãó10], [Ìè21], [Hu10], i.e. the distance
from the terrestrial surface up to a micro black hole can be of the such
value (R). In these limits of distances from a black hole estimations of
neutrino flow and number of absorption acts are given in Table
The neutrino flow is apparent from (8.1.9) and Table 8.1.1
to be more sensitive to the distance from a black hole (R) than to its
is more probable to detect neutrino not from volcanoes, which were
observed to have erupted catastrophically with huge energy extraction (
Kracatau erg, Santorini and Tambora, erg ), but from those with superficial (4-5
kms) locations of magmatic cells ( Mauna-Êåà at Hawaii islands, Vesuvius,
etc. ) [Ma10], [Ra00], at which surfaces the neutrino flow with energy
close to 14 MeV can appear in 2-3 orders more than from similar solar
neutrinos. The magmatic cell of the Cluchevskoy volcano lies is deep
Values in Table 8.1.1. are rather estimative, and they can
be changed essentially in the connection with some circumstances.
parameters of volcanoes (age, depth of magmatic cell location, energy,
wasted for volcano constructing) can be specified. Secondly, the amount of
energy of G-rays, electrons and positrons from a black hole, which
transforms into volcano energy, must be made more exact.
At last, the
spectrum of black hole radiation itself can be specified in the connection
with discovery of new types of neutrinos and other particles. However, all
these specifications do not change the main conclusion on possibility of
neutrino detection from micro-black holes in the case of their presence in
magmatic cells. These specifications will hardly decrease the magnitude of
the neutrino flow in 2-3 orders.
Moreover, it is
possible, that other neutrino types, emitted by micro-black holes, can
appear more sensitive to registration than electron neutrino, which are
detected by the chlorine - argon method.
of even two neutrino types with the same energy and power will exclude an
opportunity of alternative interpretations of the origin of these
neutrinos, since it is hard to imagine any other sources, which with the
equal rate (Ev) would produce different neutrino types with the
same energy ().
flow would become the indicator of the volcano activity: whether it is
finally extinct ("heat point" is moved in another region) or it is able to
renew its activity.
The consideration above assumed the radiating
black hole to be practically motionless in the magmatic cell.
consideration of directly opposite variant is possible, i.e., a
micro-black hole moving on a multiple orbit with the first space velocity,
which injects periodically radiation into magmatic cell. Nowadays
apocentres of oton orbits with k = 17 approach close to the surface of the
It means, that
each day in the certain time in the same region of the terrestrial cortex
the "injection" of energy occurs: in the apocentre the velocity is
minimal, hence, the energy extraction per unit of distance is maximum. The
energy extracted by the oton in firm substance can be accumulated
effectively and it is quite enough even for providing volcano
Thus, there can be geological singularities in places
of multiple otons appearance (k = 17): volcanoes, epicentres of
earthquakes, ring structures, deposits of hydrocarbons, thermal anomalies,
A period of the Earth's rotation and that of oton changing
with time, some otons can cease to be multiple, but the others will become
such. This can result in changing and even terminating a volcanic activity
in two cases.
when apocentres of multiple oton orbits penetrate deep enough in
terrestrial interiors, and this makes impossible their geophysical
manifestation at a surface.
when apocentres of multiple oton orbits come out above the terrestrial
surface, this makes impossible the energy accumulation.
that nowadays only small number of planetary bodies, apocentres of
multiple oton orbits of which are close to a surface, has active
The Earth rotation around the Sun leads to the fact,
that in different seasons a multiple oton will come in the same region in
the different time of day. This time will change each day, approximately,
in 237 seconds, and it can be determined from the following simple
correlation tc = to - t Nc (t 0 is the time
of day of initial count down, Nc is a number of days past, = 236, 555 seconds).
micro-black holes still more correspond to the idea of heat points, which
are considered to be supported by localized ascending flows of mantle
material in plumes. A black hole, moving along its orbit, warms up a
substance, creating an ascending plume.
The account of a factor of
multiple oton motion leads to changing the estimation of energy and
neutrino flow, given above for the Cluchevskoy volcano. From the account
of this factor it follows the black hole to be not constantly in the
volcano magmatic cell, but to occur there during a day, approximately, for
power of black hole radiation should be more appropriate number times, and
that gives Ðâí= 2,6*1013 J*s-1 . The
black hole with Ìâí= 2*1010 kgs can possesses this
power of radiation, which radiates neutrino with the energy about 1 GeV at
the rate about 1022 s-1.
At last, let us
notice, that not single otons exist in the Earth, but very different
gravitationally-connected systems of otons (grassifotons). Besides otons
can move in the Earth as otonic swarms. Such the models widen considerably
heuristic opportunities of otonic geophysics. Thus, the explosion of one
of otons, which is included in the otonic system and causing a volcano
catastrophic eruption, does not mean the termination of volcanic activity
in this region, because other otons of the system will continue to extract
Black hole (fermioton) clashes in grassifotonic systems can
result in earthquakes.
can be conventionally divided into two types by the dominant mechanism of
radiative grassifotons, the main energy source of which are radiative
gravitational grassifotons, the main energy source of which are oton
clashes and the accretion
grassifotons are connected with magmatic cells of volcanoes, gravitational
ones are connected with hypocentres of earthquakes.
The clash of
otons in a gravitational grassifoton caused earthquakes. Distinctions in
geophysical manifestations of grassifotons follow from these distinctions
in the dominant mechanism of energy extraction: acting volcanoes are
connected with the permanent action of oton radiation, while earthquakes
with discrete events are connected with oton clashes in grassifoton,
localized in a hypocentre (focus).
At the last stage before black
hole clash the power of gravitational radiation rapidly increase, and it
is possible to be detected by different biolocators. At the moment of
black hole clash about 1% of black hole mass is extracted in the
gravitational radiation form, and it can lead to gravitational force
inversion at the terrestrial surface.
Within the idea on otonic
energy source of volcanoes V.Mityanok [Ìè00] carried out the
investigation, which has shown, that stationary otonic orbits ensuring the
constant energy extraction in the same point near the terrestrial surface
However, on the
other hand, as it was pointed out in Section 4.3., the free motion of
otons in the Earth has rigid temporary limitations due to the interaction
with substance, and finally black holes should stop near the terrestrial
surface. Therefore nowadays it is impossible to exclude no one of the
models: both moving otons, and motionless.
concerned with catastrophic explosions of volcanoes they give similar
explosions of volcanoes - Kracatau, Santorini and Atlantis,
The problem of
energy is sharp especially in a question of catastrophic explosions of
such volcanoes, as Santorini, Kracatau, and Tambora [Ãó10], [Êó00],
Eruptions of a Kracatau type belong to the number
of strongest volcanic accidents on the globe. The most powerful eruptions
of those fixed by world statistics are eruptions of volcanoes Santorini
and Tambora, which energy 10 times has exceeded that of the Kracatau
eruption and reached 1027 erg. This energy by the order of magnitude is
equal to that of one million nuclear bombs blown up in Hiroshima.
explosion happened now in a region of megapolis, it would bring
incalculable victims surpassing those of world wars.
At the end of
current century even more powerful and till uncontroled forces of nature
have opened before the humankind. Destructive earthquakes, catastrophic
explosions of volcanoes, which energy reaches that of explosion of one
million nuclear bombs are the awesome reminder about them on the Earth.
Last century such the events were two: explosions of volcanoes Tambora
(1815) and Kracatau (1883).
Whether between explosions of the
volcano Santorini and the volcano Tambora was not so powerful volcanic
accidents? Let us make two remarks. In spite of the fact that the energy
of the volcano Tambora explosion is much more than energy of the volcano
Kracatau explosion, the Tambora accident is less known.
And the fact is
not in their locations (both of them were in Indonesian archipelago), but
in the date of these events: one has happened in the beginning of the
nineteenth century, while another has in the end. If it has happened in
the time of Santorini accident, now we would hardly know about them
anything. The distance from centres of the terrestrial civilization, thin
population, absence of mass media and communications - all this together
would make such events practically unknown.
Santorini is localized
at the centre of terrestrial civilization, but only geological
investigations of the volcanic island in our century have allowed to
discover the lost secret of the largest accident in history. For millennia
the information about the Santorini accident was lost for science. One can
imagine: how many volcanic accidents could be revealed else, which does
not concede the Santorini one.
nineteenth century two volcanic catastrophes were registered, but in the
current century such the event was not still observed. When and where can
it occur? It is not just an academic question, since if this accident will
happen on the place of Santorini, it would bring incalculable
The explosion energy of volcanoes Tambora and Santorin
was of the order 1027 erg. An analysis of oton motion in the
Earth shows, that the energy of catastrophic volcano explosions can be
provided by energy of explosive black holes (1030 erg). The
distinction between the energy of black hole explosion and maximum energy
of volcano explosion is explained as follows.
First, it is
necessary to take into account oton motions, and only that already gives
the value of volcano explosion energy existing (1027 erg).
Secondly, it is necessary to take into account, that not the whole energy
of explosive black hole can transform in volcano explosion energy.
Thirdly, estimations of volcano explosion energy may be increased.
estimate of volcanic explosion energy (1027 erg) is considered
as limitative still because the solidity of terrestrial cortex does not
allow to concentrate more energy during long time. A short-term supply by
large amount of energy (Å > 1027 erg) from a black hole
followed by the eruption and the discharge of tensions in the cortex has
not such restrictions.
At last, the
account of the Hawking radiation intensity decrease in a substance can
diminish the value of micro-black hole explosion energy in such a way,
that it will turn out less than that of volcanic accidents. The opposite
problem will then rise: finding mechanisms of explosive extraction of far
is the such mechanism in conditions of the Earth: it is fermi-oton clashes
in gravitationally-connected systems.
8.3. Planet Phaeton explosion and black hole
There is an
asteroid ring in the solar system, the main mass of which is located
between orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
substance of this ring is considered to had compounded earlier a planet,
which have given the name "Phaeton". The planet Phaeton have rotated
around the Sun between orbits of Mars and Jupiter before the grandiose
accident, i.e., the planetary explosion. Splinters, to which this planet
has broken up, continued to rotate around the Sun: they clashed with each
other, crushed, forming more and more small space bodies.
The history of
asteroid ring discovery testifies convincingly for the idea of a grandiose
planetary explosion too [Âî20], [Ñè10]. The fact is that the asteroid ring
has been discovered at that place, at which the existence of a planet was
Else Kepler come to an idea, that the harmony of the
Solar system collides with a disproportionately large distance between
orbits of Mars and Jupiter. He made a conclusion, that between Mars and
Jupiter there must be a planet.
Later the law
of planetary orbit distances from the Sun, i.e., the Titius-Bode law (or
as it is sometimes called, the rule) has been found out:
= 0,1 × R Å . × (3 × 2N-2 + 4)
RN is a distance to a planet, which number of remoteness from
the Sun is N, R Å is a distance from the Sun to the Earth (astronomical
There is an
exception for Mercury, for which N = - ¥ . For N = 5 a distance R5 = 2,8R
Å from the Sun is obtained, at which in that time no heavenly bodies were
yet found out. The German astronomer J.Bode, being based on the law above
(8.3.1.), has predicted existence of a planet at the distance 2,8 R Å ,
from the Sun (between Mars and Jupiter), a period of rotation of which is
Scientists did not pay any especial attention to this
fact till 1781, when Herschel discovered Uranus. First Herschel thought,
that he has discovered a comet, but thanking to Laplace, Saron, and Lexell
a planet was understood to have been discovered. Moreover Uranus was soon
determined to be at the distance 19,2R Å from the Sun.
This value is
equal to the distance, predicted by the Titius-Bode law for the eighth
planet, located behind Saturn (R8 = 0,1R Å × (3 ×
28-2 + 4) = 19,6R Å ). Such the accuracy was amazing, and it
was impossible to attribute this to casual coincidence. The Titius-Bode
law has received citizenship in science, and so has the Bode prediction of
a planet with R5 = 0,1R Å . (3 × 25-2 + 4) = 2,8R Å
Piazzi on the 1 of January 1801 (the first day of the first year
of the new century) has found out a weak asterisk in a constellation of
Twins with brightness about 7m. Bode, based upon Piazzi observations, has
approximately determined the orbit and found out the object to move
between Mars and Jupiter at the distance about 2,8 astronomical units from
the Sun, i.e., there, where a planet, predicted by him and named Ceres,
However, it has
turned out to be an unusual planet, much smaller than all other
Olbers on March 28, 1802 not far from Ceres has found out
one more minor planet, which has been denominated Pallas. A new planet was
discovered at the same distance from the Sun as Ceres. Thus, two minor
planets, instead of one large, were found out at the distance predicted by
the Titius-Bode law. In 1804 Olbers suggested an idea, that both planets
are fragments “of a former large planet, which was blown up by some
idea, Olbers has come further and predicted existence of other splinters
of the planet. Two minor planets, Juno and Vesta, were soon
The idea on a grandiose planetary catastrophe has been
confirmed by discovering of planetary fragments. Thus, instead of a planet
predicted by Bode only its remnants were found out, which (more and more
small) are found out till now. A total number of numbered asteroids till
the 1 of November 1981 has reached 2474.
grounds to believe, that the total number of asteroids, which move in a
ring between Jupiter and Mars, from the largest Ceres (diameter about 1000
kms) up to fragments having a diameter 1 km, is about one million
Else last century, D.Kirkwood, trying to find out the order
in asteroid’s orbits, has selected the asteroid groups, which members move
on similar orbits. The number of such groups (families) is believed
nowadays to exceed 100. These families have tens and hundreds known
members, and the total number of (known and unknown) members of families
is in one-two orders more [Ñè10].
asteroid families testify for correctness of the original version of
Olbers idea about a multiplicity of planetary explosions. But now the
relationship is distributed not to all asteroids, but to some their
groups. All this speaks about recent planetary explosions. Strange
disappearances of known asteroids and appearances of unknown ones (more
exact, appearances of “newborn” families) would be a certificate of
planetary explosions occurring presently.
If earlier the presence
of asteroids near the Earth seemed to be natural, it has become clear
after researches of E.Epick, the Irish scientist, that the life-time of
near-Earth asteroids, i.e., tens millions years, is small in comparison
with the time of planet existence. Such the conclusion meant, that the
families of near-Earth asteroids would disappeared long ago, if no
constantly working source was, which would create and deliver bodies to
the terrestrial orbit. Within the hypothesis of explosions it means a high
frequency of planetary bursts. But the fact is not in asteroid production
near the Earth.
There is a more
general problem of small bodies production (down to motes) in the Solar
system. Nevertheless, a universal decision of all these problems can
appear to consist in explosions of space bodies.
The idea of a
planet Phaeton explosion (as well as of other planetary bodies) is
confirmed by many facts (by the arrangement, the fragmental form of
asteroids, the structure of meteorites). Attempts to explain a catastrophe
(by an extremely fast rotation, a sudden change of pressure in its
interiors, clashes) collide insuperable difficulties.
times the physical mechanism capable to blow up a planet was not known.
For exploding a planet it is necessary practically instant to enter inside
planet the energy equal to by order to gravitational potential energy.
determine it for the Earth:
U Å = (3/5) ×
GM Å 2 R Å -1 (8 .3.2. )
UÅ = 2,257*1039 erg.
It is in nine
orders more than the energy of black hole explosion, which is obviously
insufficient for exploding of a planet. The existence of
gravitationally-connected systems of black holes changes the situation
radically. Clashes of black holes in close systems provide the planetary
explosions power [Òð09,11].
account energy losses of otons during their interaction with terrestrial
substance (see Section 4.3.), the estimation of black hole fall time to a
central oton of the system turns out to be comparable not only with
geological processes, but with technogeneous ones too.
clash of black holes results in energy extraction [Íî02-04] equal
EBH » 0,01c2 MBH (8 .3.3.
and (8.3.2.) we find the minimum value of masses of black holes, which in
their clashing can extract energy, sufficient for exploding the
MBH ³ (3/5) 102 GM Å 2 R Å
-1 c -2 = 2,5 × 1020 g (8.3.4.)
There can be
millions such the black holes in the Earth.
is necessary to take into account, that in clashing of black holes the
main part of energy is radiated in the form of gravitational waves, the
process of which interaction with terrestrial substance is insufficiently
investigated. In other words, only a small part of the energy extracted in
clashing of otons is possible to be capable to transform in the energy of
explosion. In clashing of fermiotons a significant part of energy can be
extracted in the form of electromagnetic waves. This lowers masses of
fermiotons, in clashing of which an explosion of the Earth can
However, there is no necessity at all in millions black
holes capable to blow up the Earth: one such system of otons is enough,
that the opportunity of the planet explosion would become real. A black
hole with a mass MBH >> 2,5 × 1020 g can quite be at the
centre of the Earth, being it germ.
this, a density of black holes at the centre is maximum, hence, the
probability of oton seizing and clashing is the highest. A time bomb of
grandiose power is laid in the terrestrial depths, which is ready any
moment to be exploded.
Let us estimate energy to be necessary for
the value is easily found:
àñò = ( R àñò / R Å )5 U Å (8.3.5.)
As it is seen
from (8.3.5.), the value of a planet explosion energy with decrease of its
sizes sharply falls, and for exploding asteroids the energy of black hole
explosions can be quite enough.
large asteroids and usual planets, as before, clashes of black holes with
appropriate masses are needed. Different mechanisms of explosion should be
reflected in features of asteroid and meteorite fragments: ones of them
should have traces of high temperatures and be similar to volcanic breeds,
but others should not.
The explosion of Phaeton is not a unique
such event in the Solar system. The facts testify the multiplicity of
planetary explosions. According to estimations, the explosion of Phaeton
should have happened millions years ago, but during billions years of
existence of the Solar system not less grandiose explosions could occur,
having changed the structure of the planetary system. In other words, the
number of large planets in the Solar system could be much
Thus, explosions and clashes of black holes can explain not
only the asteroid’s belt, but the existence of all other small bodies in
the Solar system.
Within the idea
of intraplanetary black holes the opportunity of planetary body explosions
nowadays is predicted. In particular, a charge of grandiose power is
stored in the Earth (it is equivalent to billion billions nuclear bombs),
which can at any moment to blow up our planet.
harbingers of an accident (gravitational radiation from approaching black
holes) will become accessible for detecting, and the humankind will be in
time to react on a global cataclysm to come:
keeping our space house from a gravitational Apocalypse threat, or by
opening its new prospects in some form of a space
research carried out has shown, the problem of energy sources sharply
stands not only in high energy astrophysics, but in physics of planets and
the Earth, and even in the energetics of people self-ignitions.
The idea of
black holes has come from the most distant objects of the Universe
(quasars) up to the person itself: from the deepest riddles of space up to
the deepest secrets of a human body. The wide range of oton masses gives
an opportunity of understanding phenomena of a different scale,
explaining, thus, the main for all these phenomena problem, i.e., the
question of energy localization.
Black holes in physics of the
Earth open new opportunities in deciding different problems:
formation of planets themselves up to an origin of petroleum and gas.
black holes can differ by their masses in more than fifteen orders.
only leads to a wide variety of black hole manifestations:
burning of a person up to a catastrophic explosion of the whole
directly the Earth’s civilization.
an invisible war of black holes against person goes, and the number of
victims surpasses that of injured in world wars. Nothing in the world can
protect against black holes, there is no place to hide from them. A sudden
death from "gravitational killers" waits for everybody. To avoid the fatal
meeting with a black hole-"murderer" one can only by calculating in time
an otonic trajectory and remoting from it.
The certain number of
black holes with the appropriate parameters can explain many technogeneous
accidents, e.g., destructions of buildings, air and sea accidents, fires
and strange sudden deaths of people. An appearance even of one new black
hole, an apocentre of which orbit is
close the terrestrial surface, should be reflected in statistics of
sensitivity of technosphere to oton manifestations gives a hope for an
opportunity of an otonic accident forecast similar to the weather
forecast. Moreover, it means, that on can to counteract these tragedies
and save from a fatal meeting with "a black hole-murderer". But it is not
the only area of practical application of otonic geophysics
In connection with failures in attempts to obtain
controlled thermonuclear synthesis and with close prospects of exhausting
of petroleum deposits science turns to search new energy sources.
the intrasolar black hole model (which solves a problem of solar neutrino
deficiency), one make a conclusion, that investigations in controlled
thermonuclear synthesis do not take into account a stabilizing role of a
black hole gravitational field in thermonuclear reactions, going in solar
interiors. In other words, a stabilizing factor of a a black hole powerful
gravitational field can provide stabilization of plasma and
controllability of thermonuclear reactions.
thermonuclear reactions occur in the terrestrial interiors. An indication
on this is a detection of abnormal plenteous of an easy isotope of
helium-3 in the terrestrial interiors, which can be formed only in result
of thermonuclear reactions.
Otons can also bring radical
innovations in the use of traditional energy sources: gaseous and liquid
energy carriers (hydrocarbons).
By revealing a
spatial location of otons in the Earth, relativistic (otonic) geology can
predict a location of huge petroleum and gas deposits in untraditional
geological regions [Тр 15].
finding of huge petroleum and gas deposits near processing complexes or
megapolicies becomes possible [Тр 16]. These discoveries can give the vast
incomes due to sharp decreasing of transport charges and a danger of
ecological catastrophes connected with accidents of tankers and
The greatest powers of energy extraction in the form of
explosions connected with a chemical source were obtained due to the
invention of dynamite by the Swedish industrialist А .Nobel. He hoped,
that the invention of such the destructive weapon, which is based on
energy of dynamite and is capable to destroy large buildings, will hold
back the humankind from wars.
dream was not justified: in XXth century there was a number of
wars with use dynamite, including two world wars.
In the middle of
XXth century the humankind has possessed an essentially new
energy source, i.e., an intra-atomic one, and a nuclear weapon turns out
to be even more powerful, capable to destroy whole cities. Awesome
consequences of the nuclear weapon application warn the humankind from its
use. A nuclear war was not, though its possibility is not still completely
nuclear energy discovery in certain sense Nobel’s hopes are coming true:
the awesome force of the nuclear weapon hold back from nuclear
The beginning of the third millennium can be marked with
mastering of a new energy source, i.e., otonic one. The power of oton
energy extraction is such, that the destruction of the whole
countries, continents and even of the whole planet is possible. If some
forecasts of nuclear war still leave to humankind a small chance for
survival, an otonic war is not possible in principle, since it is
equivalent to suicide.
mastering otonic energy will not only discover for people practically
inexhaustible source of energy, but also exclude a possibility of wars in
However, otons can affect even more radically on the
development of the Earth’s civilization, because they are topological
singularities in the structure of near-Earth space-time. It means the
multidimensionality of space and time of terrestrial objects, the presence
of bridges (tunnels) in parallel worlds merely in the Earth.
taking into account an opportunity of compactification of terrestrial
bodies by means of higher dimensions [Кл 00] (down to Plankian sizes) with
conservation of their usual density, one can make a conclusion about an
opportunity of penetrating through multidimensional otons in other worlds
(Metagalaxies), "starting" directly from the Earth.
As to a problem
of space civilizations it means
a possibility of changing spatial expansion of a civilization in the
three-dimensional world by exit of a supercivilization in higher dimensions of the
The greatest geniuses of humankind stood at
origins of black holes science. Grandiose intellectual efforts of many
generations of scientists have been required to open a curtain above this
exciting secret, which starts a new era in humankind development. In the
Earth a new era of black holes come, which many times surpass the nuclear
epoch by its scales.
Explosions and clashes of black holes can
explain not only the origin of the asteroid belt, but also predict a
possibility of planetary body’s explosions nowadays. A charge of grandiose
power (which is equivalent to billion of billions nuclear bombs) is stored
in the Earth, and it is capable at any moment to blow up our planet and
carry away its remnants in the Universe.
Probably, the harbingers
of an accident (gravitational radiation of approaching black holes) can in
time warn the humankind, and it will have time to react on a global
cataclysm to come:
civilization is at the front of a fatal brink:
opening before it, are capable to destroy all in our world and the Earth
of similar catastrophes is the sad fate of a planet Phaeton, which remnants are
between Mars and Jupiter orbits.
But at the same
time, by discovering inexhaustible sources of energy and infinite riches
of underground pantries, the era of black holes can become the epoch of
unprecedented power and prosperity of the humankind on the Earth and in
Back to Contents
Bahcall J.N. Masses of neutron stars and black holes in X-ray binaries.
- Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1978, vol. 160,
[Ba01] Bahcall J.N. Neutrino Astrophysics. - Cambridge,
[Be00] Beasley W.H., Tinsley B.A. Tungus event was not caused
by a black hole. - Nature, 1974, vol. 250, No 5467, 555-556.
Beckenstein J.D. Black holes and entropy. - Physical Review, 1973, vol.
[Be20] Berlitz C. The Bermuda Triangle. - New York,
[Bh00] Bhat C.L., Razdan H., Sapru M.L. A new upper limit on
optical burst from primordial black hole explosions. - Astrophys. and
Space Sci., 1980, vol. 73, No 2, p. 513-516.
[Bl00] Black Holes: The
Membrane Paradigm. - London, 1986.
[Bl10] Blair D.G., Chanmugam G.,
Drilling J..S., .Fay T.D., jun., Peters James G. Black holes of small
mass. - Nature, 1974, vol.251, 204-205.
[Bl20] Blandford R.D.
Spectrum of a radio pulse from an exploding black hole. - Monthly
Notices of Royal Astronomical Society, 1977, vol. 181, 489.
Blandford R.D., Thorne K. - In: General Relativity: an Einstein
Centenary Survey. Cambrige,1979.
[Bo00] Born M. Einstein’s Theory of
Relativity. - New-York, 1962.
[Bo10] Boehm F.,Vogel P. Physics of
Massive Neutrinos. - Cambrige, 1987.
[Ca00] Carr B.J. The pervasive
black hole. - New Scientist, 1973, vol. 59, No 858, 316-318.
Carr B.J. The primordial black mass spectrum. - Astrophys. J. 1975, vol.
201, No 1, 1-19.
[Ca02] Carr B.,J. Some cosmological consequences of
primordial black-hole evaporations. - Astrophysical Journal, 1976, vol.
206, No 1, Part 1, 8-25.
[Ca03] Carr B.,J. Black hole and galaxy
formation in a cold early Universe. - Mon. Notic. Roy. Astron. Soc.,
1977, vol. 181, No 2, 293-309.
[Ch00] Chandrasekhar S. The
Mathematical Theory of Black Holes. - New York, 1983.
G.F. Cosmological effects of primodial black holes. - Nature,1975,vol.
[Cr00] Cronin J.W. CP symmetry violation- the search for
its origin. - Review of Modern Physics. 1981, vol. 253,
[Cl00] Clayton Donald D.,. Newman Michael J., Talbot Raymond
J.Jr. Solar Models of Low Neutrino-Counting Rate: The Central Black
Hole. - The Astrophysical Journal, 1975, vol. 201, 489-493.
Rujula A., Glashow S.L., Nuclearities-a novel form of cosmic radiation.-
Nature, 1984, 312, 734-737.
[Fi00] Fitch V.L. The discovery of
charge-conjugation parity assymetry. - Review of Modern Physics, 1981,
vol. 253, 367-372.
[Fo01] Fogg. Martyn J. Accretion powered blue
stragglers. - Speculations in Science and Technology, 1990, vol.13, No.
[Fo01] Fogg. Martyn J. Stellifying Jupiter: a First Step to
terraforming the Galilean Satellites. - Journal of The British
Interplanetary Society,1989, vol. 42, p. 587-592.
Relativity. - Cambridge, 1979.
[Ge10] Gell-Mann M., Neeman Y. The
Eightfold Way. - New York, 1964.
[Go00] Goldman I., Nussinov Sh..
Weakly interacting massive particles and neutron stars. - Physical
Review D, 1989, vol. D40, No. 10, 3221-3230.
[Gr00] Greenstein G.,
Burns J.O. Small black holes: ionization tracks and ranges. - American
Journal of Physics, 1984, 252, 531-534.
[Gr10] Gribbin J. Could
mini-black holes provide "theory of everything"? - New Scientist, 1990,
No 1732, 25.
[Gu00] Gurin V.S. Tachionic black holes. - Pramana,
1985, 24, 1.
[Gu10] Gurin V.S., Trofimenko A.P. White Holes in
Kaluza-Klein Theory: Windows from Higher Dimensions. - Physics Letters
В., 1990 , vol. 241, ?3, 328-331.
[Gu10] Gurin V.S., Trofimenko A.P.
Higher-Dimensional Space-Time and the Causality Problem connected with
Tachyons. Hadronic Journal, 1990, vol.13, 57-67.
[Ha00] Hawking S.W.
Gravitationally collapsed objects of very low mass. - Monthly Notices of
Royal Astronomical Society, 1971, 152, 75.
[Ha01] Hawking S.W. Black
holes explosions? - Nature, 1974, vol. 248, 30.
[Ha02] Hawking S.W.
Particle creation by black hole. - Communications in Mathematical
Physics, 1975, vol. 43, 199.
[He00] Hewish A. Pulsars and high
density physics. - Review of Modern Physics, 1975, vol. 47,
[He01] Hewish A., Bell S.J., Pilkington J.D.H., Scott
P.F.,Collins R.A. Observation of a rapidly pulsating radio source. -
Nature, 1968, vol. 217, 709.
[Hu00] Hulse R. A. The discovery of the
binary pulsar. - Rev. Mod. Phys., 1994, vol. 66, No 3,
[Hu01] Hulse R.A.,Taylor J.H. Discovery of a pulsar in a
binary system - Astrophysical Journal Letters, 1975, vol. 195,
[Hu10] Hubbard W.B. Planetary Interiors. - New York,
[Ja00] Jackson A.A. IV. Ryan Michael P., Jr. Was the Tungus
event due to a black hole. - Nature, 1973, vol. 245, No 5420,
[Je00] Jelley J.V.,Baird G.A.,O'Mongain E. Comment on the
optical and radio detection of black hole explosion. - Nature, 1977,
vol. 267, No 5267, 499-500.
[Ka00] Kaufman P. The fast explosive
evaporation of mini black holes and flares at magnetospheres: an
attractive speculative analogy. - Asfctophysics and Space Science, 1978,
vol. 57, No 1, 249-252.
[Kr00] Kramer D., Stephani H., Maccallum M.,
Herlt E. Exat Solutions of the Einsteins Field Equations. - Berlin,
[La00] Lamb D.Q.,Lamb F.K. Nuclear burning in accreting neutron
stars and X-ray bursts. - Astrophysical journal, 1978, vol. 20,
[La10] Lang K.R. Astrophysical Formulae. - Berlin,
[La20] Landau L.D. Origin of stellar energy. - Nature, 1938, No
[Ly00] Lynden-Bell D. Galactic nuclei as collapsed old
quasars. - Nature,1969, No 233, 690.
[Ma00] MacGibbon J.H., Webber
B.R. Quark- and gluon-jet emission from primordial black holes: the
instantaneous spectra. - Phys. Rev. D. 1990, vol. 41, No 10,
[Ma01] MacGibbon J.H. Quarrk- and gluon-jet emission from
primordial black holes: II. The emission over the black-hole lifetime. -
Phys. Rev. D. 1991, vol. 44, No 2, 376 -392.
[Ma10] Macdonald G. A.
Volconoes. - New Jersey, 1972.
[Ma20] Markovic’ D. Evolution of a
primordial black hole inside a rotating solar-type star. -
Mon.Notic.Roy. Astron. Soc., 1995, vol. 277, No 1, 25-35.
Ne’eman Y. Expansion as an energy source in Quasi-stellar radio sources.
- Astrophys. J., 1965, vol. 141, No 4, 1303-1305.
J.,Hill Ch.T. Ultra high energy radiation from a black hole, Physics
Letters, 1984, vol. 2143B, 92-96.
[Op00] Oppenheimer J.R., Snyder H.
On continued gravitation contraction. - Physical Review, 1939, vol. 56,
[Op01] Oppenheimer J.R.,Volkoff G.M. On massive neutron cores. -
Physical review,1939, vol. 255, 374.
[Pa00] Page G.N., Hawking S.W.
Gamma rays from primodial black holes. - Astrophysical Journal, 1976,
vol. 206, 1.
[Pa01] Page D.N. Particle emission rates from a black
hole: massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole. - Physical
Review D13, 1976, 198-206.
[Pa02] Page D.N. Particle emission rates
from a black hole: II. Massless particles from rotating hole. - Physical
Review D14, 1976, 3260-3273.
[Pe00] Penrose R. Gravitatinal Collapse:
The Role of General Relativity. - Rivisto Nuovo Cimento, 1969,
[Pe10] Penzias A.A. The origin of the elements. - Review of
Modern Physics, 1979, vol. 51, 425-439.
[Po00] Porter N.A.,Weeks T.S.
Optical pulses from primordial black hole explosion. - Nature, 1977, No
[Po01] Porter N.A.,Weeks T.S. An upper limit to the
rate of gamma-ray bursts from primordial black hole explosions. -
Astrophys. J., 1977, vol. 212, No 1, 224-226.
W.H.,Teukolsky S.A. Floating orbits, superradiant scattering and the
black hole bomb. - Nature, 1972, No 238, 211.
[Ra00] Rast H. Vulkane
und Vulkanismus. - Leipzig, 1980.
[Re00] Rees M.J. A better way of
searching for black-hole explosions? - Nature, 1977, No 266,
[Ri00] Richter B. From the psi to charm: the experiments of
1975 and 1976. - Review of Modern Physics, 1977, vol. 49,
[Ru00] Ruderman M. Neutron starquakes and pulsar periods. -
Nature, 1969, vol. 233, 597.
[Sa00] Salam A., Strathdee J. Hadronic
Temperature and black solitons. - Int.Centr.Theor.Phys. Int.Atom.Energy
Agency (Preprint), 1976, No 107.
[Sc00] Schwarzschild K. On the
gravitational field of a point mass in Einstien's theory. -
Sitzzzungsber. dtsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1916, Kl.Math.Phys.Tech., 189
[Sh00] Sharma P.V. Geophysical Methods in Geology. - New York,
[Ta00] Taylor J.N.,Weisberg J.M. A new test of general
relativity: gravitational radiation and the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16. -
Astrophysical Journal, 1982, vol. 253, 908.
[Th00] Thorne K.S.,Zurek
W.H.,Price R.H. Thermal atmosphere of black hole, in: Black Holes:the
Membrane Paradigm. - New Haven- London, 1986.
[Ti00] Ting S.C.C. The
discovery of the particle. - Review of Modern Physics, 1977, vol. 249,
[Tr00] Trofimenko A.P. White and Grey Holes in Astrophysics.
- Astrophysics and Space Science, 1989, vol. 159, 301-315.
Trofimenko A.P. Blaсk Holes in Cosmic Bodies. - Asfctophysics and Space
Science,1990,vol. 168, 277-292.
[Tr02] Trofimenko A.P. Anticollapsars
in extended manifolds: the second Version of origin of white holes. -
Indian J. Phys. 1990, vol. 64B, No 5, 346-356.
A.P., Rotating Blake Holes in Neutron and Quark Stars: Phenomenon of
Pulsars.- Astrophysics and Space Science. 1991, vol. 180,
[Tr04] Trofimenko A.P., Physics of the Earth and Otons. -
Astrohysics and Space Science, 1992, vol.193, 51-60.
Trofimenko A.P., General Relativity in Geophysics. - Acta Geophysica
Polonica, 1992, Vol. 40, ? 3-4, 303-322.
[Tr06] Trofimenko A.P.
Short-Period Variations of tne Second Derivative of the Gravitatilonal
Potential. - Astrohysics and Space Science, 1993, vol.199,
[Tr07] Trofimenko A.P. Registration of Minute Variations of the
Gravitational Potential First Derivative. - Earth, Moon, and Planets,
1993, vol. 60, 177-179.
[Tr40] Trofimenko A.P. Gurin V.S.
Higher-dimensional white holes.- Pramana - J. Phys., 1991, vol. 36 ?5,
[Tr41] Trofimenko A.P., Gurin V.S. White and Grey Holes in
Higher-Dimensional Representation of Extended Space-Time Manifolds of
General Relativity. - Annalen der Physik , 1991, vol. 48, ?4,
[Tr43] Trofimenko A.P., Gurin V.S. Possibility of Small Black
Holes Manifestation by Neutrino Radiation in the Earth's Interior. -
Acta Geophysica Polonica, 1992, vol. 40, 1-12.
A.P., Gurin V.S. On Possible Small Black Holes Identification at the
Earth Surface through Variation of Gravitational Field and ? background.
- Earth, Moon, and Planets, 1993, vol. 60, 191-197.
A.P., Gurin V.S. Terrestrial Black Holes as Sources of Super-high Energy
Radiation. - Earth, Moon, and Planets, 1993, 61, 67-77.
Weinberg S. Gravitation and Cosmology. - New York, 1972.
Wheeler J.A. Our Universe: The Known and the Unknown. - American
Scientist, 1968, vol. 56, 1.
[Wh01] Wheeler J.A. A Journey into
Gravity and Spacetime. - New York, 1990.
[Wh02] Wheeler J.A.
Neutrinos, Gravitation and Geometry. - Bologna,
[Аз00] Айзерман М.А.
Классическая механика. - Москва: Наука, 1980.
[Ак00] Акимова А.А.,
Волгина А.И. О результатах совместных гравиметрических и газометрических
наблюдений. - Физика Земли(Москва), 1990, № 3, 82-85.
А.А., Волгина А.И. Вариации силы тяжести и концентраций газа на
Демидовском полигоне(Волгоградская обл.) - Физика Земли(Москва), 1993,
[Ал00] Альберт Эйнштейн и теория гравитации. - Москва:
[Ар00] Артеменко О.Л. Ансамбли миров в многомерной
Вселенной. - В: [Ас00], 37-42.
[Ар20] Аррениус С. Образование миров.
- Москва, 1909.
[Ас00] Астрофизика и геофизика отонов. - Минск,
[Ас10] Астрофизика, кванты и теория относительности. - Москва:
[Ба00] Бакал Дж. Нейтринная астрофизика. - Москва:
[Ба10] Барковский Е.В. “Вакуумные бомбы” Земли(Интервью
газете “Труд”). - Знамя юности(Минск), 16.12.1993 г.
В., Дзюбло А., Снегирев Ю., Юсин М. Ошибка индийских диспетчеров или
казахстанских пилотов? - Известия(Москва), 14.11.1996 г.
И., Руденко В.Н. Гравитационные волны в ОТО и проблема их обнаружения. -
Москва: Издательство Московского университета, 1987.
Р.Д., Торн К.С. Астрофизика черных дыр. - В [Об]: 163-216.
Буланже Ю.Д., Волгина А.И., Демьянова Т.Е. О влиянии газоносности пород
на изменения силы тяжести. - Физика Земли(Москва), 1992, № 1,
[Бо00] Борн М. Физика в жизни моего поколения. Москва,
[Ве00] Вейнберг С. Гравитация и космология. - Москва: Мир,
[Ви00] Визгин В.П. Релятивистская теория тяготения. - Москва:
[Вл00] Владимиров Ю.С. Размерность физического
пространства-времени и объединение взаимодействий. Москва:
[Вн00] Внезапная смерть. - В книге: Большая медицинская
[Во00] Волгина А.И. О влиянии миграции флюидов
на изменения силы тяжести. - Повторные гравиметрические наблюдения.
Москва, 1988, 181-185.
[Во01] Волгина А.И., Кононков В.Ф., Сидоров
В.А. Особенности изменений силы тяжести во времени над нефтегазовыми
месторождениями. - Геология и геофизика(Москва), 1987, № 7,
[Вo10] Волкова Л.В., Докучаев В.И. Нейтринное ограничение на
первичные черные дыры в Земле. - Письма в ЖЭТФ, 1994, том 60, № 1-2,
[Во20] Воронцов-Вельяминов Б.А. Очерки о Вселенной. - Москва,
[Во30] Воронцов И.М., Кельмансон И.А., Цинзерлинг А.В. Синдром
внезапной смерти грудных детей. - Санкт-Петербург, 1995.
Всехсвятский С.К. Космогония Солнечной системы. - В книге [Пр00],
[Га00] Гальцов Д.В. Частицы и поля в окрестности черных дыр.
- - Москва: Издательство Московского университета, 1986.
Горбовский А. Был человек и... сгорел. - Минская правда. 18.02.1997
[Го10] Горелик Г.Е. Размерность пространства. - Москва,
[Гр00] Гравиразведка: Справочник геофизика. - Москва,
[Гр10] Гриб А.А., Мамаев С.Г., Мостепаненко В.М. Вакуумные
квантовые эффекты в сильных полях. - Москва: Энергоатомиздат,
[Гр20] Грушинский H. П. Основы гравиметрии. - Москва: Наука,
[Гр21] Грушинский Н.П., Сажина Н. Б. Гравитационная разведка.-
Москва: Недра, 1988.
[Гу10] Гурин В.С.,Трофименко А.П. Комплексные
координаты в расширенных многообразиях обшей теории относительности. -
FIZIKA, 1985, том 17, №1, 101-114.
[Гу11] Гурин В.С. Трофименко А.П.
Расширенная теория относительности и многомерное( комплексное)
представление расширенных многообразий. - Acta Physica Hungarica, том
67, №3-4, 1990, 275-287.
[Гу10] Гущенко И.И. Извержение вулканов мира
(каталог). - Москва: Наука, 1979.
[До00] Долгов А.Д., Зельдович Я.Б.,
Сажин М.В. Космология ранней Вселенной. - Москва: Издательство
Московского университета, 1988.
[Еф00] Ефремов Ю.Н. Очаги
звездообразования в галактиках. - Москва: Наука, 1989.
В.Н. Внутреннее строение Земли и планет. Москва, 1978.
Зельдович Я.Б. Избранные труды. Частицы, ядра, Вселенная. - Москва,
[Зе10] Зельдович Я.Б., Новиков И.Д. Релятивистская астрофизика.
- Москва, 1967.
[Зе11] Зельдович Я.Б., Новиков И.Д. Теория тяготения
и эволюция звезд. - Москва: Наука, 1971.
[Зе12] Зельдович Я.Б.,
Новиков И.Д. Строение и эволюция Вселенной. - Москва: Наука,
[Зе13] Зельдович Я.Б., Новиков И.Д. Проблемы современной
космологии. - Вопросы философии(Москва), 1974, № 4, стр.77-86.
Идлис Г.М. Революции в астрономии, физике и космологии. - Москва,
[Ка00] Карташкин А. Нездешним пламенем пылая. - Техника
молодежи(Москва), № 6, 1996.
[Ка10] Катастрофы и аварии. - Минск:
[Кл00] Климец А.П. Физика и философия. Поиск
истины. - Брест, 1997.
[Кл01] Климец А.П. Геоны - кандидаты на роль
первичных микрочерных дыр(отонов) и их значение в физике элементарных
частиц. - В:[Ас00], 25-36.
[Кн00] Кнепп В. Гибель “Находки”: загадок
все больше.- Известия(Москва), 9.01.1997.
[Кн10] Книга рекордов
Гиннеса. - Москва, 1991.
[Ко00] Колобков Н.В., Мезенцев В.А. Грозные
явления атмосферы. - Москва, 1951.
[Ку00] Кузнецовы В.В., Семаков
Н.Н., Доровский В.Н., Котляр П.Е. Физика Земли: новый взгляд на
некоторые проблемы. - Новосибирск, 1989.
[Ку10] Кукал З. Великие
загадки Земли. - Москва, 1989.
[Кэ00] Кэри У. В поисках
закономерностей развития Земли и Вселенной. - Москва, 1991.
Ландау Л.Д., Лифшиц Е.М. Теория поля. - Москва: 1973.
Р. За границами возможного. - Смоленск: Русич, 1997.
И.А. Физика Вселенной. - Москва: Наука, 1976.
[Ле10] Леонов В.С.
Теория упругой квантованной среды. Новые источники энергии. - Минск,
[Ле20] Лесков С. Самовозгорание: несчастный случай или
неразрешимая загадка природы? - Известия(Москва), 23.07.1994
[Ли00] Лифшиц Е.М. О гравитационной устойчивости расширяющегося
мира. - В:[Ал00], 362-383.
[Ма00] Малина Я., Малинова Р. Великие
загадки Земли: Природные катастрофы и пришельцы из космоса. - Москва,
[Ми00] Митянок В. К вопросу об отонном происхождении вулканов.
- В:[Ас00], 61-70.
[Ми01] Митянок В. Препринт № 97 Института физики
АН БССР, 1976.
[Ми10] Мизнер Ч., Торн К., Уилер Дж. Гравитация. -
Москва: Мир, 1977.
[Ми21] Мирошников Л.Д. Человек в мире
геологических стихий. - Ленинград, 1989.
[Ни00] Николсон И.
Тяготение, черные дыры и Вселенная. - Москва: Мир, 1983.
Новиков И.Д. О возможности возникновения крупномасштабных
неоднородностей в расширяющемся мире. - ЖЭТФ(Москва), 1964, том 40,
[Но01] Новиков И.Д. Задержка взрыва части фридмановского
мира и сверхзвезды. - АЖ(Москва), 1964, том 41, выпуск 6.
Новиков И.Д. Черные дыры и Вселенная. - Москва, 1985.
И.Д. Энергетика черных дыр. - Москва: Знание, 1986.
И.Д., Фролов В.П. Физика черных дыр. - Москва: Наука, 1986.
Ньютон Исаак. Математические начала натуральной философии. - Москва,
[Об00] Общая теория относительности. - Москва: Мир.
[ОН00] О?Нейл Р. Таинственный мир: необычные явления и загадки
Земли. - Нижний Новгород, 1995.
[Оп00] Оппенгеймер Р., Снайдер Г. О
безграничном гравитационном сжатии. - В [Ал00], 353-361.
Оппенгеймер Р., Волков Г. О массивных нейтронных сердцивинах. - В
[Ор00] Орлова И. Братская могила глубиной в 100
метров. - Московская правда, 14.11.1996 год.
[Ос00] Островская Н.
Всплывет ли правда о гибели танкера “Находка”? - Комсомольская правда,
[Па00] Пархомов А.Г. Малые черные дыры в Земле:
взаимодействие с веществом и возможные эффекты, доступные наблюдению. -
[Па20] Павловский М.С. Черные и белые дыры. -
[Пи00] Пильняк Г.П. О флуктуациях скорости вращения
Земли внутри суток. - Физика Земли(Москва), 1992, №12, 71-79.
Пильняк Г.П. Об изменениях момента инерции Земли внутри суток. -
Астрономический журнал(Москва), 1989, том 66, выпуск 2,
[Пи02] Пильняк Г.П. Нерегулярности в суточном вращении
Земли. - Астрономический журнал(Москва), том 65, выпуск 1,
[По00] Повторные гравиметрические наблюдения. - Москва:
[По01] Повторные гравиметрические наблюдения. -
Москва: Нефтегеофизика, 1988.
[По10] Потупа А.С. Открытие Вселенной -
прошлое, настоящее, будущее. - Минск, 1997.
современной космогонии. - Москва. 1972.
[Ре00] Резанов И.А. Великие
катастрофы в истории Земли. - Москва, 1984.
[Ри00] Рис М., Руффини
М., Уилер Дж. Черные дыры, гравитационные волны и космология. - Москва:
[Са00] Санько С.И. Максимальное расширение
шварцшильдовского многообразия на области с геометрией, порождаемой
источником отрицательной массы. - В:[Ас00], 17-25.
А.Д.. Испарение черных мини-дыр и физика высоких энергий. - Письма в
ЖЭТФ, 1986, том 44, вып. 6, 295-298.
[Са30] Сагитов М.У. Лунная
гравиметрия. - Москва, 1979.
[Са40] Самовозгорание человека... -
Сенсация(Минск), № 2, февраль 1997.
[Се00] Семененко Н., Квятковский
О. Небо окрасилось в красный цвет. - Труд (Москва),
[Си00] Силко Н. Г., Трофименко А. П., Митянок В. В.
Траектории движения отонов в приближении к реальности модели Земного
шара. - В:[Ас00] 45-52.
[Си10] Симоненко А.Н. Астероиды. - Москва:
[Сп00] Спасский Б.И. История физики. - Москва,
[То00] Томсон В. О проявляющейся в природе общей тенденции к
рассеянию механической энергии. - В книге: Второе начало термодинамики.
[Тр00] Трофименко А.П. Принцип развития в астрофизике.
- Рукопись депонирована в ИНИОН АН СССР 03.04.78 г. № 2027.
Трофименко А.П. Вселенная и развитие. - Минск, Наука и техника,
[Тр02] Трофименко А.П. Генезис и современные проблемы
астрофизики отонов. - Рукопись депонирована в ИНИОН АН СССР 22.05.84 г.,
[Тр03] Трофименко А.П. Систематика релятивистских объектов с
горизонтом событий (отоны) и их взаимопревращения. - Fizika, 1986, том
18, №2, 139-149.
[Тр04] Трофименко А.П. Отоны (кротовые норы) в
сильной гравитации, ультрамалые частицы и заряд нейтрино. - Fizika,
1988, том 20, №3, 321-336.
[Тр05] Трофименко А.П. Смещение частоты
излучения антиколлапсирующих объектов в пространстве-времени
Керра-Нъюмена. -Астрофизика, 1989, т.31, вып. 2, 397-406.
Трофименко А.П. Черные дыры в геофизике. - Болгарский геофизический
журнал, 1990, том16, № 2, 80-86.
[Тр07] Трофименко А.П. Малые черные
дыры и вулканы. - Fizika, 1990, том 22, №3, 545-548.
Трофименко А.П. Белые и черные дыры во Вселенной. - Минск,
[Тр09] Трофименко А.П. Черные дыры в
космических телах (гравитационные аномалии, взрывы, вулканы, нейтринное
излучение) - Revue Roumaine de Physique, 1991, том 36, №3-4,
[Тр10] Трофименко А.П. Физические модели белых и серых дыр и
их астрофизические приложения”. - Fizika, 1991, том 23, №2,
[Тр11] Трофименко А.П. Общая теория относительности и физика
Земли.- Fizika, 1991, том 23, №3, 247-272.
[Тр12] Трофименко А.П.
Теория относительности и астрофизическая реальность. Минск, Наука i
[Тр13] Трофименко А.П. Кратковременные вариации первой
производной гравитационного потенциала. - Fizika, 1992, том В1, №2,
[Тр14] Трофименко А.П. Регистрация отонных гравиимпульсов. -
Fizika, 1992, том В1, №3, 207-212.
[Тр15] Трофименко А.П.
Релятивистская геологоразведка - новый метод поиска гигантских
месторождений нефти и газа в нетрадиционных геологических районах(не
[Тр16] Трофименко А.П. Черные дыры в физике Земли. -
[Тр41] Трофименко А.П., Гурин В.С. Нейтринное излучение
малыми черными дырами. - Acta Physica Hungarica. 1992, том 72, № 2-4,
[Тр51] Трофименко А.П., Артеменко О.Л.
Гравитационно-связанные системы отонов в физике Земли. - Fizika, 1993,
том В2, №3, 135-146.
[Тр61] Трофименко А.П., Голуб В.М. Вариации
производных гравитационного потенциала и определение масс и параметров
орбит отонов. - В:[Ас00], 53-60.
[Уи00] Уилер Дж. Гравитация,
нейтрино и Вселенная. - Москва, 1962.
[Уи01] Уилер Дж., Гаррисон Б.,
Вакано М., Торн К. Теория гравитации и гравитационный коллапс. - Москва:
[Ур00] Урланис Б.Ц. Эволюция продолжительности жизни. -
[Фр00] Фролов В.П. Физика черных дыр: от Эйнштейна до
наших дней. - В книге: “Эйнштейновский сборник, 1975-1976 ”, Москва,
Наука, 1978, 82-151.
[Фр01] Фролов В.П. Черные дыры: квантовые
процессы, термодинамика, астрофизика. - В книге: [Че00], 5-30.
Фролов Л., Ленц Е. “Находку” погубила волна-“убийца”. - Рабочая трибуна
(Москва), 18.01. 1997 год.
[Ха00] Хаббард У. Внутреннее строение
планет. - Москва, 1987.
[Хе00] Хелм Томас. Когда бушуют стихии. -
[Хо00] Хокинг С., Эллис Дж. Крупномасштабная структура
пространства-времени. - Москва: Мир, 1977.
[Хо01] Хокинг С. Нарушение
детерминированности при гравитационном коллапсе. - В книге: [Че00],
[Хо02] Хокинг С. Черные дыры и термодинамика. - В книге:
[Хо03] Хокинг С. От большого взрыва до черных дыр. -
Москва: Мир, 1990.
[Ча00] Чандрасекар С. Математическая теория черных
дыр. - Москва: Мир, 1986.
[Ча01] Чандрасекар С. О возрастающем
значении общей теории относительности для астрономии. - В книге:
“Эйнштейновский сборник, 1973 ”, Москва, Наука, 1974, 207-228.
Черные дыры. - Москва: Мир, 1977.
[Че01] Черные дыры: Мембранный
подход. - Москва: Мир, 1988.
[Че20] Черняев А.Ф. Камни падают в небо.
От Тунгусского до Сасовского взрыва. - Москва, 1992.
А.Ф. Камни падают в небо. От Тунгусского взрыва до авиакатастрофы под
Междуреченском. - Москва, 1995.
[Ша00] Шапиро С., Тьюколски С. Черные
дыры, белые карлики и нейтронные звезды. - Москва: Мир, 1985.
Шарма П. Геофизические методы в региональной геологии. - Москва,
[Шл00] Шляховый В.П., Корба П.С. Спектральный состав вариаций
силы тяжести в суточном и дробносуточных диапозонах по наблюдениям в
Симферополе. - Кинематика и физика небесных тел(Киев), 1989, том 5, № 5,
[Шя11] Шьяма Д.В. Черные дыры и их термодинамика . - В книге:
[Эн00] Эйнштейн Альберт. Собрание научных трудов в
четырех томах. - Москва: Наука, 1965-1967.
[ХХ00] ХХ век: хроника
необъяснимого. Год за годом. - Москва, 1996.
[ХХ01] ХХ век: хроника
необъяснимого. Событие за событием. - Москва,
Back to Contents