Paradise and the Topology of Space:

A Theory of = Ultimate=20 Matter

by Philip G. Calabrese, Ph.D.

To start off today, some of you may remember the last Scientific =
Symposium in=20
Nashville when I concluded that there is no way for human resurrection =
to occur=20
on Jerusem "on the third day after natural death" because the guardian =
seraphim,=20
who carries the human soul, cannot travel there in less than twenty =
years.=20
*The Urantia Book* insists that there is no way for a seraphim to =
traverse=20
space any faster than three times the speed of light (*260). Since the =
nearest=20
star is 4.3 light *years* away and Jerusem must be many stars away, =
the=20
angel can't get there in days at her speed. The distance from earth to =
Jerusem=20
can't be nine light days; it is more like sixty light years away.

Now at the first Scientific Symposium in Nashville I went so far as =
to=20
suggest that some nameless Melchizedek might have been called on the =
carpet for=20
using the expression "on the third day after natural death," which we =
would take=20
literally. Well, today I am going to recant my *Urantia Book* =
apostasy;=20
I've thought of a way for the guardian angel to get to Jerusem in less =
than=20
three days: The angel simply doesn't travel there under her own power! =
She must=20
be translated to Jerusem by some unrevealed universe or Paradise =
technique. A=20
careful reading of *The Urantia Book* will reveal that in every =
case where=20
this trip by the seraphim from Urantia to Jerusem is described, the =
author never=20
says that the angel gets there by normal seraphic travel or transport. =
Instead,=20
some vague expression like "proceeds to Jerusem" is used to denote the =
mode of=20
transportation of the angel. I hope this explanation resolves the =
anomaly and=20
points to an unrevealed seraphic phenomenon associated with human death. =
On,=20
then, to the main part of my presentation today.

So now let us reflect on the cosmos--the Totality of Reality. Each = one of us,=20 no matter what our status in life, has been afforded a personal view of = the=20 cosmos, not only introspectively in the attempted contemplation of the=20 indwelling spirit of the Universal Father, but also externally as we = each gaze=20 up at the stars in the night sky. This continuous view of the cosmos = stretches=20 trillions of miles in all directions, and spans millions of years into = the past,=20 and allows projections millions of years into the future. That the = universe=20 should afford each one of us a personal view of the whole cosmos, no = matter how=20 supposedly small our doings here on earth, demonstrates how God is = concerned=20 with each of us as individuals--not just in the aggregate.

In the final analysis, **INFINITY IS**, and that is all there is =
to say=20
about it. But, of course, we're going to try to say something else about =
it,=20
anyway! But before we do, let us pause in awe for a moment to experience =
in our=20
personality consciousness, the infinite ONENESS that we call God, =
perhaps to=20
feel the loving smile of the one that we may call Father.

Total Reality is Unqualified Infinity. Total reality embraces = unbounded=20 infinity as well as the Infinitude, and also these two unified as the = whole, the=20 Infinite One. Before attempts at understanding, the human mind must = divide=20 Reality Totality into an infinitude (as contrasted from a single unity), = and an=20 unlimited infinity (as contrasted from the bounded finite), and then = somehow=20 synthesize these two conceptions into a unified whole.

In the first absolute transaction, the Infinite One becomes the =
personal=20
Father of the Eternal Mother-Son (the original spirit person) and also =
the=20
eternal source of Paradise (the original non-spirit, nonpersonal =
manifestation).=20
All conjoint action by the Father and the Mother-Son is consummated by =
the=20
Mind-God, the Conjoint Actor, the Third Person of the Infinite Trinity. =
From=20
Paradise emerges space, which, like the concept of the master universe, =
is a=20
transcendental reality existing somehow *between* the infinite and =
the=20
finite. The fifth absolute is the Unqualified Absolute, which pervades =
all space=20
but is not limited by space. The Deity Absolute and Universal Absolute =
complete=20
the seven absolutes of infinity. These seven absolutes are functionally =
unified=20
in the fourteen triunities, each a functional association of the Father =
with two=20
of the other six absolutes.

It is suggested that we may helpfully conceive the total cosmos as an =
almost=20
limitless ellipse with one absolute focus located in Paradise. What does =
*The=20
Urantia Book* say about these matters?

**On Paradise:**

- A flat ellipsoid, having upper, nether, and peripheral regions=20
- The most gigantic organized structure in the whole Cosmos=20
- The dwelling place of the existential Trinity of three divine = persons=20 and (probably) the focal center of all three of the nonpersonal = Absolutes=20 (*15)=20
- The geographic center of infinity (*126)=20
- Has no time or space (except by volition) but has absolute =
*surfaces=20 and areas*and absolutely significant*distances and=20 directions*--north, south, east, west, up and down=20 - Universally present as the physical grasp of Paradise gravity, = an=20 instantaneous attraction (*125,482)=20
- Is the nucleus of
*each*ultimaton (the smallest material = particle)=20 - Located at the center of all things=20
- No position
*in*space but located at the*focus*of = space=20 (*1156)=20 - Peripheral Paradise touches the relatively motionless midspace = zones of=20 space existing between the moving zones of space (*124). =

**On the Unqualified Absolute:**

- Pervades all space but is not limited to space presence=20
- Gives rise to primordial force, emergent energy, and all finite = matter=20
- Reveals all that originates in Paradise (*126)=20
- The central focalization of its space presence is in the outer = zone of=20 nether Paradise (*123).

**On Space:**

- Needs seven dimensions, one for each absolute of infinity = (*1439)=20
- Is eternal but not absolute; is absolutely ultimate (*1297)=20
- A transcendental reality before all beginnings and after all = endings;=20 not the "final" frontier, but the "ultimate" frontier=20
- Partially transcended in human experience only by mind (*1439)=20
- Pervaded by the Unqualified Absolute (*124)=20
- The totality of space has a definite geometrical shape (*124)=20
- Seemingly originates just below nether Paradise while time = originates=20 just above upper Paradise=20
- All matter contains space and moves in space, but not all space = is=20 inside matter (*1297)=20
- The midspace zones encapsulate all of pervaded space and the = space=20 reservoirs and the potential infinity of all outer space. =

**On Ultimate Matter and Motion:**

- Ultimatons are minute spheres-- particles, not waves (*475)=20
- 100 ultimatons make up a typical electron but do not whirl = around within=20 the electron like electrons whirl around the atomic nucleus nor as = planets=20 whirl around the sun (*476)=20
- Ultimatons have axial rotations around their Paradise nucleus=20
- Ultimatons may "huddle" together within the electron (*478)=20
- When a particle moves in space it takes its interior space with = it=20 (*1297)=20
- Ultimatons and electrons shift positions and emit mass according = to m =3D=20 E/c2. (*474)=20
- There is a plane perpendicular to any given mass (*126)=20
- Sunlight is composed of highly heated and agitated electrons = (*460-61)=20
- The wave length associated with the emission of a particle is = 860 times=20 the diameter of the emitting particle (*474, 476).

**Now a number of questions arise:**

- How can Paradise be the nucleus of each ultimaton without being in = space?=20
- How can Paradise have a universe location (at the focus of the = midspace=20 zones) but have no position in space?=20
- How can Paradise be the geographic center of infinity?=20
- How can Havona and the superuniverses (in space) whirl around = Paradise?=20
- What is an ultimaton made of?=20
- What does an ultimaton look like? what is its geometric shape?=20
- How are the 100 ultimatons arranged in an electron?=20
- What does it mean for ultimatons to "huddle"?=20
- How can ultimatons and electrons shift positions and emit mass?=20
- How does the positive or negative charge of an electron arise and = why=20 don't light particles have charge?=20
- How do the wave properties of matter arise?=20
- How can an electron emit an electron (a light particle) when it = drops to a=20 lower energy state?=20
- How does an electron absorb a particle of light (an electron) and = shift=20 position?

[By the way, the last two provocative questions and the above = observation=20 about sunlight were contributed by Dick Bain in a personal letter.]

Here's how far I've gotten on these problems.

Topology is that branch of mathematics that deals with those aspects =
of=20
geometry that are invariant under stretching or contracting. For =
instance, a=20
doughnut and a cup with a handle are topologically equivalent because =
one can be=20
transformed into the other by a continuous mapping. But a sphere and a =
doughnut=20
are not so equivalent. Topology also attempts to model the "closeness" =
concept.=20
Formally, a topological space (a topology) consists of a universe U of =
points=20
together with a special collection of subsets of U called *open =
sets.* The=20
collection of open sets has the property that the intersection of any =
two open=20
sets is also an open set, and the union of *any* subcollection of =
open=20
sets, whatever, is also an open set. A *neighborhood* of a point is =
any=20
subset of the universe that includes an open set that contains the given =
point.=20
For example, the universe of points in the euclidean plane together with =
the=20
collection of the interiors of all circles (and their unions) form a =
topological=20
space. Another interesting example of a topology is called the co-finite =
topology.

Suppose we start out with a euclidean plane of points and adjoin to = it=20 certain points at infinity. We can imagine each straight line extending = out to=20 infinity in both directions ending in two points at infinity. A line = parallel to=20 the first line ends in two different points at infinity; and a line = intersecting=20 the first two lines ends in still another pair of points at infinity. = The set P=20 of all points at infinity for all the lines in the plane can be = considered to be=20 a "circle" at infinity. In euclidean solid geometry we would get a = "surface" P=20 of points at infinity. A topological neighborhood of infinity (i.e., a=20 neighborhood of the surface of infinite points) is any subset of the = universe=20 whose complement is bounded, i.e., contained, in some finite circle. = Thus a=20 neighborhood of infinity is any subset of the universe that includes = everything=20 outside some finite circle.

Since Paradise is the geographic center of infinity, Paradise must be = a=20 neighborhood of infinity. It somehow must contain infinity. After all, = the zone=20 of infinity does exist at the center of nether Paradise. The co-finite = topology,=20 applied to solid euclidean space rather than the plane, seems just right = for=20 modeling a cosmos whose origin is at infinity instead of at some finite = point in=20 space. Paradise must be the center of what we commonly imagine as what's = "out=20 there" in the infinite reaches of outer space, and even beyond, out to = the very=20 edge of our mental concept of the master universe.

Now Paradise is not only "out there"; Paradise is also at the focus = of space,=20 the focus of those midspace quiescent zones of space intervening between = the=20 relatively moving zones, as for example, in the atom, electron, and = ultimaton.=20 Thus somehow Paradise is also located at the center of each ultimaton. = Finally,=20 Paradise is also located at the center of the grand universe, at the = center of=20 the superuniverses as they whirl around. How can all this be? The answer = is that=20 the topology of space must allow Paradise proximity in all these ways at = once.=20 Note, for instance, that peripheral Paradise can be approached by a = sequence of=20 midspace points.

Space must have a non-spatial hole at the center of each ultimaton = where=20 nether Paradise acts to hold the ultimaton together as an individual = particle.=20 The nuclear region of each ultimaton must be located in nether Paradise, = where=20 there is the "central focalization of the space presence of the = Unqualified=20 Absolute." That must be why space seems to originate just below nether = Paradise.=20 In addition, the macroscopic grand universe must have a unique space = intrusion=20 where, again, Paradise is located. Space topology must allow this = proximity of=20 Paradise to the central universe, which exists in space, while Paradise = itself=20 is not in space. The construction of ultimatons is the work of the = Paradise=20 primary and secondary Transcendental Force Organizers, and the design of = the=20 master universe is the work of the Transcendental Architects of the = Master=20 Universe.

All this leads me to discard our contemporary notion of space as a = uniform=20 void. Space is neither uniform nor empty. Uniformity of space is not = really=20 necessary for our physical theories. All we need is the revolutionary = motions of=20 matter in space about a center. But the center itself need not be = conceived as=20 being in space. Space must be very "holey," spelled with an "e." It must = have a=20 big hole in the macroscopic center of the grand universe, little holes = at the=20 center of each ultimaton, and finally an inconceivable hole at the outer = infinity center of the master universe. Matter has a spirit nucleus!

Now, what is an ultimaton made of, and what does it look like? An = ultimaton=20 must be a relatively thin, rotating, spherical shell of space with a = non-spatial=20 nucleus. The Paradise nucleus binds the shell together preventing it = from flying=20 apart on tangents toward outer infinity. An electron must consist of one = hundred=20 concentrically arranged ultimatons with a common non-spatial = nucleus.

These concentric spherical shells of space may rotate with different = speeds=20 and axes of rotation, thus giving rise to angular momenta with as many = as 100=20 different axes. The result is an angular momentum vector with components = in all=20 three conventional spatial dimensions, just as appears in contemporary = quantum=20 mechanics (although contemporary science hardly gives physical = interpretation to=20 this momentum vector). Huddling of ultimatons means that the rotating = shells of=20 space cluster by shrinking or expanding toward one another.

An ultimaton may drop into a lower rotational energy state by =
emitting some=20
rotating space (mass) in the form of another ultimaton. In this case the =
change=20
in the mass of rotating space of the ultimaton equals the change in its =
energy=20
divided by the square of the speed of light. On the other hand, capture =
of one=20
rotating particle (ultimaton) of moving space by another ultimaton would =
increase its energy and its rotational radius or speed and so its mass. =
Similar=20
transactions can be envisioned when 100 ultimatons are concentrically =
arranged=20
in an electron. When a particle is formed and emitted by another =
particle,=20
vibrations are initiated in the pre-ultimatonic content of space, and =
these=20
secondary waves are apparently interpreted by contemporary quantum =
physicists as=20
the particle itself. Hence we have the confusing contemporary notion of =
a=20
"wavicle"--a hypothetical hybrid particle-wave duality. However, =
according to=20
*The Urantia Book,* these waves have a wave length 860 times the =
diameter=20
of the emitting particle.

The generation of so-called positive and negative electronic charge = might=20 also be explained in terms of the spin of the 100 intraelectronic = ultimatons.=20 For instance, if most or all of the 100 ultimatonic shells are rotating = in the=20 same direction, then two such electrons might repulse one another. On = the other=20 hand, two electrons (one a positron) with opposite revolutionary = directions=20 might attract each other and cancel some of each other's rotational = mass,=20 emitting some energy in the process. The construction of electrons, = protons and=20 atoms from the ultimatons is the work of the power centers (*473).

Although these explanations are still qualitative, it does seem to me = that=20 most of the strange phenomena of present-day quantum mechanics are = potentially=20 explainable in terms of this model of sub-electron matter as rotating = spherical=20 shells of space. I am just now working out some of the quantitative = implications=20 of this theory, and the preliminary results are very encouraging, but = time=20 doesn't permit me to get very far into that here today. In the near = future, I=20 plan to submit a more technical paper for publication that will deal = with these=20 quantitative aspects of the theory. This paper will redefine mass as = rotating=20 space and will consider the conservation of the kinetic and potential = energy and=20 angular momentum of an ultimaton; it will attempt to deal with energy = mass=20 transformations and wave generation.

One last comment: Albert Einstein's theory of relativity predicted = (and it=20 has many times been experimentally verified) that the mass of a particle = increases without limit as the speed of that particle approaches the = speed of=20 light. This has always seemed to be a very mysterious phenomenon. But = this=20 theory of ultimatons and electrons at least offers an appealing way to = conceive=20 of the situation without abandoning common sense--by imagining that as = the speed=20 of the particle increases, more and more of the energy applied to the = particle=20 is transformed into rotational energy (mass) rather than into = straightforward=20 motion. Thus the mass of the particle increases more than its speed as = its speed=20 approaches the speed of light.

A service of*The=20
Urantia Book* Fellowship