by Michael E. Salla, M.A.,
from ExopoliticsJournal Website
The existence of
extraterrestrial life has long been a subject of intense speculation and
fierce public debate.
focused on the more than 200 billion solar systems known to exist in the
Milky Way, and similar figures for other galaxies, that might harbor
advanced extraterrestrial life. This is exemplified in estimates of
extraterrestrial life in the galaxy provided by Project OZMA participants (forerunner to Search
for Extraterrestrial Intelligence - SETI), who in a 1961 meeting agreed on
the Drake equation.
They came up
with the initial figure of 10,000 technological civilizations scattered
throughout the galaxy.  Such
estimates have allowed futurists and science fiction authors to speculate
on what such life would be like, and how it may impact on human society at
some future date. Scientific speculation has taken the form of estimating
the possibilities of advanced extraterrestrial life evolving in our
galaxy, and the levels of scientific advancement that these would have
Astronomer Nikolai Kardashev, for example, speculated that advanced
extraterrestrial civilizations could be distinguished by the quantity of
energy they used. This could occur at a planetary level (Type I), stellar
level (Type II) or galactic level (Type III). 
Public debate concerning extraterrestrial life has
focused upon extensive visual sightings, radar trackings and photographs
of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) that appear to be
under intelligent control. Many UFO sightings have been acknowledged by
government officials as not explainable in terms of known aircraft or
natural phenomena, and have even been reported to outperform the most
advanced aircraft possessed by industrialized nations.
former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the U.S., General
Nathan Twining, made the following declaration about the “flying
disks” phenomenon in September 1947:
phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious.”
[4 - see below insert]
Letter From General N.F. Twining to Commanding
General, Army Air Forces
This letter's recommendations led to the creation
of Project Sign,
the US military's first serious UFO
23 September 1947
SUBJECT: AMC Opinion
Concerning "Flying Discs"
TO: Commanding General
Washington 25, D.C.
ATTENTION: Brig. General George
1. As requested by AC/AS-2 there is presented below the
considered opinion of this command concerning the so-called
“Flying Discs.” This opinion is based on interrogation report data
furnished by AC/AS-2 and preliminary studies by personnel of T-2
and Aircraft Laboratory, Engineering Division T-3. This opinion
was arrived at in a conference between personnel from the Air
Institute of Technology, Intelligence T-2, Office, Chief of
Engineering Division, and the Aircraft, Power Plant and Propeller
Laboratories of Engineering Division T-3.
2. It is the opinion that:
a. The phenomenon reported is something real
and not visionary or fictitious.
b. There are objects
probably approximately the shape of a disc, of such appreciable
size as to appear to be as large as man-made aircraft.
There is the possibility that some of the incidents may be
caused by natural phenomena, such as meteors.
d. The reported
operating characteristics such as extreme rates of climb,
maneuverability (particularly in roll), and action which must be
considered evasive when sighted or contacted by friendly
aircraft and radar, lend belief to the possibility that some of
the objects are controlled either manually, automatically or
e. The apparent common description of the objects
is as follows:
(1) Metallic or light reflecting
(2) Absence of trail, except in a few instances
when the object apparently was operating under high
(3) Circular or elliptical in
shape, flat on bottom and domed on top.
(4) Several reports
of well kept formation flights varying from three to nine
(5) Normally no associated sound, except in three
instances a substantial rumbling roar was noted.
flight speeds normally about 300 knots are
f. It is possible within the present U.S.
knowledge - provided extensive detailed development is
undertaken - to construct a piloted aircraft which has the
general description of the object in subparagraph (e) above
which would be capable of an approximate range of 700 miles at
g. Any developments in this country along
the lines indicated would be extremely expensive, time consuming
and at the considerable expense of current projects and
therefore, if directed, should be set up independently of
h. Due consideration must be given the
(1) The possibility that these objects are
of domestic origin the product of some high security project
not known to AC/AS-2 or this command.
(2) The lack of
physical evidence in the shape of crash recovered exhibits
which would undeniably prove the existence of these
(3) The possibility that some foreign nation has a
form of propulsion possibly nuclear, which is outside of our
3. It is recommended that:
a. Headquarters, Army Air Forces issue a
directive assigning a priority, security classification and code
name for a detailed study of this matter to include the
preparation of complete sets of all available and pertinent data
which will then be made available to the Army , Navy, Atomic
Energy Commission, JRDB, the Air Force Scientific Advisory
Group, NACA, and the RAND and NEPA projects for comments and
recommendations, with a preliminary report to be forwarded
within 15 days of receipt of the data and a detailed report
thereafter every 30 days as the investigation develops. A
complete interchange of data should be
4. Awaiting a specific directive AMC will continue the
investigation within its current resources in order to more
closely define the nature of the phenomenon. Detailed Essential
Elements of Information will be formulated immediately for
transmittal thru channels.
by similar senior military or government officials have led to the
extraterrestrial hypothesis that UFOs are extraterrestrial in origin, as a
possible explanation. 
a growing number of former government, military and corporate officials
have come forward to disclose direct experience of UFOs and
extraterrestrial life, and of government suppression of corroborating
and debate continues around the subject of extraterrestrial life and its
relation to UFO sightings, there has been growing controversy about how to
approach the growing pool of data available in the public domain,
primarily through the internet. The data comprises many thousands of
accounts by both private individuals; and former corporate, military and
government officials; who have made available personal testimonies,
photos, videos and documentation concerning extraterrestrial life.
governments have also significantly contributed to the growing pool of
open source data available. The U.S. government, for example, has made
available many documents through Freedom of Information Act
requests that are now available on the internet. Similarly, governments
such as France and Britain in 2007 and 2008 placed thousands of UFO case
files on the internet. 
One approach to the public database has been to focus
primarily on evidence concerning UFOs, and to subject this to rigorous
scientific analyses to determine its credibility. Another more recent
approach gaining popularity has been to focus on the public policy
implications of evidence concerning extraterrestrial life. These
respective approaches are generally known as ‘UFOlogy’ and ‘exopolitics’.
of each approach advocate distinct methodologies for dealing with the data
available in the public domain.
In this paper,
I contrast these two approaches to UFO-related data in terms of their
suitability for comprehensively understanding the public policy
implications of extraterrestrial life.
Emphasizing Scientific Study of Physical Evidence
The field of UFOlogy is generally accepted to have
started with sightings of what were initially called ‘flying saucers’ by
Kenneth Arnold in June 1947. The frequency of flying saucer reports
in the U.S. quickly led to a classified study by the U.S. Air Force with
the initial assistance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1948.
emerged to confirm that the Air Force commissioned technical specialists
at its Air Technical Division at Wright Patterson Air Force Base to
conduct a detailed investigation. The resulting investigation of
approximately 300 cases produced a highly classified study called ‘The Estimate of the
Situation’ in September 1948, whose initial conclusion
reportedly supported the extraterrestrial hypothesis.
Estimate and its remarkable conclusion was moved all the way up the
Air Force hierarchy to the desk of the Chief of Staff, General Hoyt
Vandenberg who, according to unconfirmed reports, rejected it and made
clear that support for the extraterrestrial hypothesis was not an
acceptable conclusion for reasons related to national security. 
Captain Edward Ruppelt, who in 1952 set up and was in charge of Project Blue Book, the
official USAF investigation of the UFO phenomenon:
said it would cause a stampede....How could we convince the public the
aliens weren’t hostile when we didn’t know ourselves? … the general
ordered the secret analysis burned. But one copy was held out - Major
Dewey Fournet and I saw it in 1952.” 
Ruppelt’s statement suggests that the extraterrestrial hypothesis was not
a neutral scientific problem to be determined by technical specialists,
but an issue of utmost national security concerns.
public policy implications of extraterrestrial life, trumped any neutral
scientific study of the phenomenon. It could not be assumed that the
findings of any genuine investigation of UFOs would be released to the
general public. The subsequent official U.S. Air Force study of UFOs,
Project Blue Book, was dogged by criticisms by UFO researchers that
important evidence was being overlooked.
well-known critic was Major Donald Keyhoe who wrote a number of
books concerning ‘flying saucers’. 
He eventually became the head of the National
Investigative Committee for Aerial Phenomenon (NICAP) which was created in 1956 to initiate
civilian investigations of UFO’s and to pressure the USAF to conduct more
thorough investigations. Keyhoe and NICAP employed well-credentialed
scientists, engineers and former officials to build impressive database
confirming the reality of UFOs and the support this gave to the
Keyhoe’s and NICAP’s efforts, USAF and official government attitudes were
dismissive, and even recommended debunking of UFO reports on national
The 1953 CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel delivered a
report, the Durant Report, that
recommended ridiculing the flying saucer phenomenon and the possibility of
extraterrestrial life, for national security reasons.
"debunking" aim would result in reduction in public interest in "flying
saucers" which today evokes a strong psychological reaction. This
education could be accomplished by mass media such as television, motion
pictures, and popular articles.… Such a program should tend to reduce
the current gullibility of the public and consequently their
susceptibility to clever hostile propaganda. 
debunking by government and military officials culminated in Keyhoe and
some UFO researchers concluding that a government conspiracy existed to
cover up information. Keyhoe’s 1955 book, The Flying Saucer
Conspiracy, detailed the extent to which the U.S. military was
silencing personnel from revealing what they had seen and withholding
corroborating physical evidence. 
Other UFO researchers, in contrast, insisted that the
government had merely “fouled up” its study of UFOs, and that no
government conspiracy existed. The consensus between the two groups of UFO
researchers was that more emphasis would be given to establishing the
scientific merit of UFO evidence, to counter the debunking efforts of
government officials and members of the public.
implications of the data confirming the reality of UFOs and the likelihood
of the extraterrestrial hypothesis would be put off to some future
date when evidence would be sufficiently overwhelming to remove all
As a field of study, UFOlogy therefore concentrated
on scientific analysis of physical data associated with UFOs, and
minimized speculation on the origins of UFOs and the extraterrestrial
This is best
demonstrated in a famous definition by Dr Allen Hynek, who defined
the scientific study of UFOs as follows:
We can define
the UFO simply as the reported perception of an object or light seen in
the sky or upon the land the appearance, trajectory, and general dynamic
and luminescent behavior of which do not suggest a logical, conventional
explanation and which is not only mystifying to the original percipients
but remains unidentified after close scrutiny of all available evidence
by persons who are technically capable of making a common sense
identification, if one is possible. 
UFOlogists such as Dr Hynek were not receptive to the idea that government
entities were systematically tampering with evidence and intimidating
individuals into silence. Any government ‘cover-up’ was limited to
maintaining silence on evidence confirming UFO’s, and not admitting to
blunders in official studies of UFO’s.
government ‘cover-up’ or ‘foul-up’, according to UFOlogists, could be
overcome by more detailed scientific studies.
The view that a
‘hard’ cover-up existed in terms of systematic evidence tampering and
intimidating witnesses by draconian security measures was dismissed. The
idea of a ‘hard cover-up’ would seriously undermine the merit of the
scientific method championed by UFOlogists for getting to the truth.
leading UFOlogists were scientists with backgrounds in engineering,
astronomy, meteorology, physics, and/or image analysis, who were
“technically capable of making a common sense identification”, the ‘hard
cover-up’ idea was dismissed as unsubstantiated conspiracy theory.
neither the UFO data that pointed to the existence of extraterrestrial
life, nor evidence of a high level government cover-up on national
security grounds, would be discussed in terms of its public policy
UFOlogy as a field of study was not receptive to
analyses of the public policy implications of extraterrestrial life which
was regarded as premature and too speculative. Instead, a number of ad hoc
public policy measures were adopted in terms of briefings of government
officials and the mass media of the need for serious scientific study of
UFOs given the quality of evidence.
has not appreciably changed over the sixty-year period of UFO
investigations by official and private entities. It is best exemplified in
documents such as “The Best Available Evidence”
which was circulated in a confidential policy initiative by Laurence Rockefeller to brief the
Clinton Administration of UFOs in the early 1990s. 
a Press Conference at the National Press Club in Washington DC
chaired by former Arizona Governor Fife Symington, focused
exclusively on expert witness sightings of UFOs. 
National Press Club - Washington, DC
November 12, 2007
VIEW SHORT VIDEO CLIPS OF PRESS
extraterrestrial hypothesis was deliberately excluded from
discussions by Symington and the organizers.
Report and Public Policy Implications of Extraterrestrial Life
While UFOlogists avoided
analysis of the public policy implications of extraterrestrial life,
official documents would slowly emerge detailing such implications.
Undoubtedly the most important document to publicly emerge is the 1961
Brookings Institute study commissioned by NASA on behalf of
the U.S. Congress.
Titled “Proposed Studies on the Implications of
Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs,” the Brookings
Report devoted several sections to discussing the public policy
implications of extraterrestrial life. The Brookings Report
delivered to the U.S. Congress in April 1961, described the potential
impact of extraterrestrial life or ‘artifacts’ being found on nearby
face-to-face meetings with it [extraterrestrial life] will not occur
within the next 20 years; artifacts left at some point in time by these
life forms might possibly be discovered through our space activities on
the moon, Mars, or Venus. 
Viking Photo: Face on Mars
described the unpredictability of societal reactions to the discovery of
its [extraterrestrial] existence might also be found in artifacts left on the moon or other
planets. The consequences for attitudes and values are
unpredictable, but would vary profoundly in different cultures and
between groups within complex societies; a crucial factor would be the
nature of the communication between us and the other beings. 
The Report also
mentioned that devastating societal effects could also result from contact
with more technologically advanced off world societies:
Anthropological files contain many examples of societies, sure of
their place in the universe, which have disintegrated when they had to
associate with previously unfamiliar societies espousing different ideas
and different life ways; others that survived such an experience usually
did so by paying the price of changes in values and attitudes and
Brookings Report went on to raise the possibility of suppressing
any announcement of extraterrestrial life or artifacts for national
such information, under what circumstances, be presented or withheld
from the public?” 
the Brookings Report pointed out that,
groups, scientists and engineers might be the most devastated by the
discovery of relatively superior creatures, since these professions are
most clearly associated with mastery of nature.” 
Brookings Report provides the first officially sanctioned analysis
of the public policy implications of discovering extraterrestrial life
and/or artifacts. The Report confirms the unpredictability of societal
responses around the globe, and raises the possibility of societal
collapse. The clear conclusion is that the discovery of extraterrestrial
life and/or artifacts would be of the utmost national security concern.
the Brookings Report alluded to the possible desirability of
withholding from the public any discovery concerning extraterrestrial life
and/or artifacts on national security grounds. It should be pointed out
that the Brookings Report itself, while not a classified document,
was mysteriously withheld from the general public until 1993 when it was
discovered at a Federal Archive in Little Rock, Arkansas. 
of the Brookings Report and its non-availability for over thirty
years, helps confirm that an official effort was well underway to
discourage discussion of the public policy implications of
The Brookings Report together with
the Durant Report make it possible to identify ten significant
public policy questions concerning extraterrestrial life that are raised
by these official documents:
official cover-up of extraterrestrial life justified on national
extent would official disclosure of extraterrestrial life destabilize
segments of American and global society would be most affected by
disclosure of extraterrestrial life?
extent are the tools of psychological warfare such as debunking and
discrediting of witnesses, to be used on the American and global
public to dismiss the seriousness of data concerning UFOs and
extent is the mass media used to promote a cover-up of
the constitutional standing of classified executive orders concerning
extent does the public’s ‘right to know’ impact on official efforts to
limit information on extraterrestrial life on a ‘need to know’ basis?
extent would a cover-up of information on extraterrestrial life
involve draconian national security measures?
extent should scientific principles or technologies gained from
extraterrestrial life be shared with the general public?
public policy decisions concerning extraterrestrial life or
technologies be decided in secretly appointed committees veiled from
public scrutiny or made transparent in a highly visible public
policy questions and the issues they address arise directly out of
officially sanctioned investigations, the Durant Report and the Brookings
Report. The related public policy issues do not require acceptance of data
confirming the reality of extraterrestrial life, only the possibility that
extraterrestrial life exists.
there is an important need to systematically study such public policy
issues using a range of disciplinary approaches incorporating both
quantitative and qualitative methods on the publicly available evidence on
extraterrestrial life and UFOs.
This needs to
be done in a way that satisfies two constituencies who strongly differ
over the question of whether the minimum threshold of evidentiary support
for the reality of extraterrestrial life has been attained.
constituency comprises individuals and groups who do not accept that a
minimum threshold of evidence has been reached to prove that
extraterrestrial life exists beyond all reasonable doubt.
examples include supporters of Search for Extraterrestrial
Intelligence (SETI), who argue that the possibility of
extraterrestrial life is sufficient to justify the investment of
appreciable resources in seeking evidence through radio transmissions.
individuals and groups largely accept the pioneering work of Frank
Drake and his SETI colleagues in calculating the likelihood of
extraterrestrial life existing in the Milky Way galaxy. 
advocates of SETI openly challenge the evidence proposed by UFO
researchers as having proved the existence of extraterrestrial life.
A second constituency
is individuals and groups who argue that a minimum evidentiary threshold
has been reached but that the general public and many scientists are not
aware of this. This group believes that vigorous education programs are
needed to inform the public of the available evidence, much of which has
been ignored by the mass media, universities and public officials.
importantly, this second constituency argues that public policy analysis
needs to proceed using the available evidence.
Public Policy Concerning Extraterrestrial Life
Historically there have been a number of attempts to
address key public policy issues concerning evidence of extraterrestrial
life from the perspective of inadequate official investigations and
governmental suppression of UFO data. 
policy issues have arisen in an ad hoc manner in the context of proposed
or ongoing UFO investigations without any attempt to systematically
address these issues. 
primarily resulted in attempts by UFO researchers to get national
governments to initiate official investigations and to create the
necessary governmental bodies to achieve this task. This is exemplified in
the 1978 UN General Assembly Decision to set
up a United Nations agency to investigate UFO reports and the
possibility of extraterrestrial life. 
While lauded at
the time as a great achievement by UFO researchers, to date the UN has not
implemented this decision, nor made any effort to study the public policy
issues associated with the evidence. Consequently, up until recently,
there has been no attempt to systematically study public policy issues
concerning extraterrestrial life.
has been proposed as a distinct disciplinary approach that attempts to
provide such a systematic study.
The first reference to
‘exopolitics’ as a distinctive approach to studying public policy issues
associated with extraterrestrial life appeared in a seminal 2000 paper by
Alfred Webre where he
politicians have defined extraterrestrial presence as a live political
or public policy issue. No sizable number of citizens of any terrestrial
nation are moved to call upon their local politicians or the political
process to connect with the extraterrestrial presence, or study it, or
even acknowledge it officially… Exopolitics is a fundamental organizing,
mediating, social, and governmental process in our interplanetary and
interdimensional space. 
The need for
systematic discussion of public policy issues concerning extraterrestrial
life by establishing a new discipline called ‘exopolitics’ was more
formally proposed in a January 2003 paper where I argued that evidence
concerning extraterrestrial life would:
"… lead to
the birth of a new field of public policy, ‘exopolitics’, which can be
defined as the policy debate over the choices governments and
populations need to make in formulating and implementing legislative and
policy responses to the presence of ETs in human affairs.” 
a definition has been proposed for helping better formalize exopolitical
is the study of the political actors, institutions and processes
associated with extraterrestrial life.” 
of this definition is that it makes it possible for exopolitical
discussion of public policy issues without necessarily accepting that
extraterrestrial life has been discovered and/or is covered up for
national security reasons.
offset criticism that exopolitics makes a priori assumptions that
extraterrestrial life exists which might be directed at alternative
definitions of exopolitics. So, for example, the Brookings Report
can be cited as a document making a number of exopolitical statements
concerning public policy implications of extraterrestrial life, without
accepting the reality of extraterrestrial life.
researchers speculating about protocols for dealing with contact with
extraterrestrial life are implicitly analyzing exopolitical themes.
Most supporters of
exopolitics accept that the existence of extraterrestrial life has been
abundantly demonstrated by a vast and ever-growing pool of evidence
accumulated over the last sixty years provided by eyewitnesses,
whistleblowers, scientists, ‘experiencers’ and leaked government
documents. Consequently, most advocates of exopolitical analysis claim it
is finally time to focus on public policy aspects of this accumulated
exemplified in the case of Paul Hellyer, the former Defense
Minister of Canada, who has spoken at a number of exopolitical events
on what he describes as some of the “most profoundly important policy
questions that must be addressed.” 
Alternatively, it is possible, as already mentioned,
for public policy aspects of extraterrestrial life to be analyzed without
necessarily accepting the veracity of evidence supporting such life.
Consequently, while exopolitical analysis often proceeds from accepting
the persuasiveness of evidence establishing the reality of
extraterrestrial life and/or artifacts, exopolitics does not require such
an acceptance as a necessary condition.
condition for exopolitical study is acceptance that the possible existence
of extraterrestrial life has significant public policy
Most exopolitical analysts contrast their approach
with UFOlogists who continue to advocate accumulating more evidence to
provide a scientific argument for proving to determined skeptics that UFOs
are real and that the extraterrestrial hypothesis a legitimate focus of
scientific inquiry. Exopolitics analysts conclude that much of the
skepticism concerning UFOs and extraterrestrial life crosses the
conceptual boundary between objective criticism and debunking. 
This has led to
claims that the debunking performed by critics of UFOlogy and exopolitics,
is part of the debunking and ridiculing effort recommended by the Durant Report, and implicitly
legitimated by the Brookings Report. In short,
the discussion of public policy issues concerning extraterrestrial life is
itself subjected to debunking as evidenced in the 30 years of secrecy
surrounding the Brookings Report and its findings.
prevented the development of the field of exopolitics for over five
decades since UFO research began in 1947.
The attempt to raise
public policy discussion of extraterrestrial life has led to much debate
and controversy. Supporters of exopolitics have been subjected to
sustained criticisms for proposing serious public policy discussion of the
available evidence. Many ‘UFOlogists’ remain highly critical of
exopolitics as an emerging disciplinary approach to public policy issues
concerning extraterrestrial life.
other skeptics have difficulty grasping that exopolitics is the forerunner
to a legitimate academic discipline that can be anticipated to be
eventually established in every major university for the systematic study
of such policy issues.
exopolitics often tend to focus on some of the pioneers of exopolitical
thought in terms of their methods and ideas, rather than identifying the
merits of demarcating the conceptual boundaries for a scholarly approach
to public policy issues concerning extraterrestrial life. 
the Discipline of Choice
present historical situation is in some ways analogous to the 19th century
where there was much debate on how to prepare individuals for studying
public policy issues in relation to careers in international diplomacy,
public office and/or as university professors.
from the Aristocratic class formed a unique pool of amateur scholars who
emphasized classical studies as the best preparation for dealing with public policy issues. They recommended the
historical works of Cicero, Josephus, Herodotus,
Thucydides and other ancient authors; and requisite training in
Latin, classical Greek or similar ancient languages. 
‘gentlemen scholars’, as they have been described, prescribed ample
leisure time for study of public policy issues and criticized those who
required remuneration from their studies. Nevertheless, largely out of the
History departments of many universities, the new discipline of Political
Science began to emerge in the 1860s; and these were staffed by salaried
professionals trained in the latest methods of political scholarship and
science developed as an academic discipline since it fulfilled a
functional need: the need was to systematically study public policy
issues, and how individuals could be trained to professionally deal with
Political science is now the discipline of choice for those
wanting to systematically study public policy issues and to be
professionally trained to work with these in various careers. Similarly,
exopolitics will be the discipline of choice for those desiring to study
public policy issues associated with extraterrestrial life, since it also
fulfills a functional need. The functional need is to understand how
extraterrestrial life impacts on public policy issues, and to
professionally train individuals to deal with these.
will be first established in departments of political science as a
legitimate sub-field, as is currently the case with ‘international
politics’, ‘foreign policy’, ‘comparative politics’, ‘political economy’,
etc., in many political science departments. The precursor to such
academic studies is the Exopolitics Certification Program created
with faculty drawn from the Exopolitics Institute. 
exopolitics will emerge as a distinct department with an interdisciplinary
focus spanning public policy issues relating not only to political
science, but to exoscience, exoreligion, exodiplomacy,
Debunkers, UFOlogists, SETI researchers and other critics of
exopolitics are poor students of history not to have observed how
academic disciplines and sub-fields develop to fulfill functional needs.
Such individuals are remiss in not observing how exopolitics will fill the
functional need for the systematic study of public policy issues
concerning extraterrestrial life.
The choice of
the word 'exopolitics' to represent this nascent academic discipline has
long-term strategic value due to the functional need it fills.
Furthermore, exopolitics is the term of choice to deal with the public
policy issues identified earlier, and others that arise from documents and
evidence concerning extraterrestrial life and technologies.
UFOlogy and SETI will become redundant as fields of study since the
functional needs each serves will quickly be settled once the existence of
extraterrestrial life is accepted. The reality of UFOs will be moot once
they have been publicly identified as ‘extraterrestrial’,
‘interdimensional’ or ‘extratemporal’ in origin.
UFOs that are extraterrestrial
origin will no longer form a unique conceptual category of
unidentified flying objects, but will become identified as
extraterrestrial vehicles (ETVs). Similarly, continued
efforts to “search for extraterrestrial intelligence” will also become
redundant. Discerning the existence of extraterrestrial life through radio
communications will cease to have much of a functional need once such life
has been confirmed.
Those devoted to UFOlogy and SETI are missing a
great opportunity to contribute to establishing legitimate conceptual
parameters for exopolitical study. Experts in both fields of study can
assist in bringing clarity to the public policy implications of a
phenomenon they are also interested in. Exopolitics is here to stay as the
discipline of choice for understanding the public policy implications of
a new branch of knowledge will revolutionize academic studies and the
world as we know it.
thanks to Dana Tomasina for proof-reading the final version of this
 See Frank Drake, “The Drake Equation: A
Reappraisal,” in First Contact: The Search for Extraterrestrial
Intelligence, eds. Ben Bova & Byron Preiss (Bryon Preiss, 1991)
 Kardashev, N. S. "Transmission of Information by
Extraterrestrial Civilizations," Soviet Astronomy, 8:2 (1964)
 Letter From General N.F. Twining to Commanding
General, Army Air Forces, 23 September 1947
 For comments by
former military and government officials concerning UFO’s see Don
Berliner with Marie Galbraith and Antonio Huneus, UFO Briefing Document:
The Best Available Evidence (UFO Research Coalition, 1995)
 See Steven Greer, Disclosure:
Military and Government Witnesses Reveal the Greatest Secrets in Modern
History (Crossing Point Inc., 2001).
 France’s UFO files are
available online at: http://www.cnes-geipan.fr . The UK’s Ministry of
Defense UFO files are available online at: http://tinyurl.com/5jm398
detailed analysis of what occurred with the initial “Estimate of the
Situation,” See Michael Swords, “Project Sign & Estimate of the
Situation,” Journal of UFO Studies, 7.
Keyhoe, Aliens from Space (Signet Books, 1973) 14.
Keyhoe’s first book was The Flying Saucers are Real (Fawcett Gold Medal,
 Cited from online version of Robertson Panel
Donald Keyhoe, The Flying Saucer Conspiracy (Henry Holt & Co.
 Allen Hynek, The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry
(Henry Regnery Company, 1972), 10.
 Allen Hynek, The UFO
 See Don Berliner, et al., UFO Briefing
 For media coverage of the November 12,
2007 National Press Club Conference on UFO’s go to: http://cficoverage.wordpress.com/
Brookings Report, 215.
 Brookings Report, 215.
 Brookings Report,
 Brookings Report, 215.
 Brookings Report,
 See Richard Hoagland and Mike Bara, Dark Mission: The
Secret History of NASA (Feral House, 2007) 81.
 See Frank
Drake, “The Drake Equation: A Reappraisal,” in First Contact, eds. Bova
& Preiss, 115-17.
 See Isaac Asimov, “Terrestrial
Intelligence,” & Arthur C. Clarke, “Where Art They” in First
Contact, eds., Bova and Preiss, 29 & 310.
 See Donald
Keyhoe, Aliens from Space.
 For discussion of an evolution
in approaches to public policy issues concerning extraterrestrial life,
see Michael Salla, “The History of Exopolitics: Evolving
Political Approaches to UFOs and the Extraterrestrial
Hypothesis" Exopolitics Journal 1:1 (2005) 1-17.
See UN General Assembly Decision 33/426,
 First published in June 2000 and
republished in the Exopolitics Journal 2:2 (2007):
 See, Michael Salla, “The Need for Exopolitics, Implications
of Extraterrestrial Conspiracy Theories for Policy Makers and Global
Peace,” (January 2003). Paper published as chapter one in
Exopolitics: Political Implications of Extraterrestrial Life
(Dandelion Books, 2004).
 This is a revised version of a
standard definition I proposed in 2005 in my paper, "The History of
Exopolitics” Exopolitics Journal 1:1 (2005) 1-17.
 See Michael Michaud, “A Unique Moment in
Human History,” in First Contact, eds., Bova and Preiss,
 See Michael Salla, “Using Space Weapons Against ET
Civilizations,” Nexus Magazine 14:2 (2006).
Michael Salla, Corso’s Critics "Colonel Philip Corso and his Critics:
Crossing the Rubicon between Objective Criticism and
Debunking" - Parts 1 & 2 Exopolitics Journal 1:2 &
 For example, see Kevin Randle, Exopolitics, available
online at: http://kevinrandle.blogspot.com/2005/11/exopolitics.html
 See Michael Parenti, “Patricians, Professionals and
Political Science,” American Political Science Review, 100:4 2006) 499.
Available online at: http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/APSRNov06Parenti.pdf
 See Michael Parenti, “Patricians, Professionals and
Political Science,” American Political Science Review, 100:4 2006) 499.
Available online at: http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/APSRNov06Parenti.pdf