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Julian Baggini
is editor and co-founder of 
The Philosophers’ Magazine
 (www.philosophersmag.com). He is the author of several books, including
The Ethics Toolkit 
(with Peter S. Fosl, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007),
Welcome toEverytown: A Journey into the English Mind
(2008) and
Should You Judge This Book by Its Cover? 
(2009). He has written for numer-ous newspapers and magazines, including the
, the
Financial Times
and the
New Statesman
, as well as for the think tanks theInstitute of Public Policy Research and Demos.
Peter S. Fosl
is Professor of Philosophy at Transylvania University inLexington, Kentucky. He is co-author with Julian Baggini of 
The EthicsToolkit 
(Wiley-Blackwell, 2007) and is also co-editor of the
Dictionary of Literary Biography 
(2002) volumes on British philosophy, as well as co-editor with David E. Cooper of 
Philosophy: The Classic Readings
(Wiley-Blackwell, 2009). Fosl’s scholarly publications address topics in scepticism,ethics, the philosophy of religion and the history of philosophy.
Praise for the fi rst edition
The Philosopher’s Toolkit 
provides a welcome and useful addition to theintroductory philosophy books available. It takes the beginner throughmost of the core conceptual tools and distinctions used by philosophers,explaining them simply and with abundant examples. Newcomers tophilosophy will fi nd much in here that will help them to understand thesubject.’
David S. Oderberg,University of Reading 
‘. . . the average person who is interested in arguments and logic but whodoesn’t have much background in philosophy would certainly nd thisbook useful, as would anyone teaching a course on arguments, logic, andreasoning. Even introductory courses on philosophy in general mightbenefi t because the book lays out so many of the conceptual “tools” whichwill prove necessary over students’ careers.’
‘Its choice of tools for basic argument . . . is sound, while further tools forargument . . . move through topics and examples concisely and wittily . . .Sources are well chosen and indicated step by step. Sections are cross-referenced(making it better than the Teach Yourself “100 philosophical concepts”) andsupported by a useful index.’
Reference Reviews
A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication
A Compendium of PhilosophicalConcepts and Methods
This second edition first published 2010© 2010 Julian Baggini and Peter S. FoslEdition history: Blackwell Publishing Ltd (1e, 2003)Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’spublishing program has been merged with Wiley’s global Scientific, Technical, and Medicalbusiness to form Wiley-Blackwell.
Registered Office
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ,United Kingdom
Editorial Offices
350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UKThe Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UKFor details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information abouthow to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our web-site at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.The right of Julian Baggini and Peter S. Fosl to be identified as the authors of this work hasbeen asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears inprint may not be available in electronic books.Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trade-marks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks,trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associ-ated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed toprovide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It issold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional serv-ices. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competentprofessional should be sought.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Baggini, Julian.The philosopher’s toolkit : a compendium of philosophical concepts and methods / JulianBaggini and Peter S. Fosl. – 2nd ed.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-1-4051-9018-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Reasoning. 2. Methodology. I. Fosl,Peter S. II. Title.BC177.B19 2010101–dc222009042655A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.Set in 10.5/13pt Minion by SPi Publisher Services Ltd, Pondicherry, IndiaPrinted in Singapore01 2010
For Rick O’Neil, colleague and friend, in memoriam