The biggest conflict between Croats and the Bosnian government was the Ahmici massacre of Apri,1993. No one was spared when the Croat forces shelled the Bosnian part of the village and destroyedtwo mosques as the youngest victim was a three-month-old baby boy who was machine-gunned todeath in his crib. The oldest victim was a 96-year-old woman. They were two of the 120 estimateddeaths that day.Between 1992 and 1994 in Foca, all Bosnians were expelled from the area. Some 2,704 people aremissing or were killed during the massacres period. Additionally, Serb authorities set up locations – commonly described as rape camps – in which hundreds of women were raped. Aside from rape, thecampaign against non-Serb civilians in the region also included ethnic cleansing, mass murder, andthe deliberate destruction of Bosnian property and cultural sites.In the early evening hours of May 25, 1995, the Army of Republika Srpska shelled a gathering of young people in the city of Tuzla. 71 people were killed and more than 200 wounded. All of thevictims were civilians and the majority was between the ages of 18-25. Three days later they wereshelled from the same position.With many more massacres to name, the genocide lasted from Bosnia’s secession from Yugoslavia in1990 to the 1995 Dayton Peace Agreement. In October, 1992, EU’s Lord David Owen and former I.S.Secretary of State Cyrus Vance proposed a draft constitution organizing Bosnia into a decentralizedfederation according to the “Vance-Owen” plan. Bosnian Serbs rejected this plan. Then in 1994, theUnited States decided to take on a more active role, seeking to back diplomacy with the threat of NATO air power in protecting safe areas and UN peacekeepers. That same year the US special envoyhelped to reach a cease-fire between Bosnian Croats and Muslims. Shortly after, a five nation ContactGroup (United States, Russia, Britain, France,a nd Germany) drafted the 51/49 territorial compromisethat all sides eventually accepted. The Dayton Peace Agreement allotted 51% of the country to theCroat-Muslim Federation and 49% to Republika Srpska, or the Serb Republic. This took place from November 1 to November 21, 1995. The main participants from the region were Serbian PresidentSlobodan Milosavic, Croatian President Franjo Tudman, and Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic,with Bosnian Foreign Minister Muhamed “Mo” Sacirbey. After its initiation in Dayton, Ohio, the fullagreement was signed in Paris, France on December 14, 1995. Other politicians of importance thatsigned the document were French President Jacques Chirac, U.S. President Bill Clinton, UK PrimeMinister John Major, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, and Russian Prime Minister ViktoChernonmyrdin. Part of the agreement mandated international organizations to monitor, oversee, andimplement crucial parts of the agreement. One of the major criticisms of this agreement, though, isthat the current legal structure of the peace agreement does not follow some of the basic principles of international law, thus leaving the Bosnian territorial and political situation highly unstable andsensitive since 1995 when it was implemented.In 1996, SFOR (stabilization force) sent 20,000 American troops to prevent new hostilities. Accordingto Richard Holbrooke, the chief architect of the Dayton Peace Agreement, the country would not havesurvived without the presence of the troops. Also, contrary to popular belief before their deployment,no lives have been lost among those peacekeepers.Who?PerpetratorsSlobodan Milosevic of Serbia and Franjo Tudjman of Croatia used public media in their respectivedomains and turned television and radio into effective propaganda tools that intensified tensions between Serbs and Croats while demonizing the Muslims. At the same time, they were suppressingindependent media advocating for multi-ethnic coexistence. Milosevic, who is a declared war criminal, aimed at reviving dark memories of World War II, Ustasa’s (Croatian Nazi-like movement)killing of Serbs, Jews, and Gypsies. He did so by exhuming mass graves of Serbs and using those as proof that the Croats are enemies thus legitimizing his attacks on their lands.