Monday, 04 June 2012
Anthony Blake on JG Bennett and the Sherborne Experiment
Gurdjieff Bennett Course July 2012
Awakened Human Beings
remembering GI Gurdjieff
JG Bennett Foundation - Come experience Turkey & Western Anatolia with us October 2012 .wmv
Concerto in G minor-mvt 1 by David Bennett - Jeff Kodel and John Fairbanks
Daryl Hall - Babs and Babs
John Also Bennett at ROY G BIV, playing a fan
John Also Bennett Live at ROYGBIV, Columbus, OH
The Best Magic Effects Jokers to GO!
Concerto in G Minor - David Bennett
Scarlet Street: Edward G. Robinson, Joan Bennett, Margaret Lindsay (1945 Movie)

John G Bennett

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Anthony Blake on JG Bennett and the Sherborne Experiment
  • Order:
  • Published: 21 Apr 2011
  • Duration: 3:26
  • Updated: 02 Apr 2012
Author: MastersofWisdom Gregory Dominato interviews Anthony Blake Anthony Blake (born 1939) studied Physics at Bristol University with David Bohm (see Bohm-Bennett Correspondence 1962-4) and the History and Philosophy of Science at Cambridge with Gerd Buchdahl. He collaborated with engineer Edward Matchett on Creative Design (numerous papers) and worked with John Allen and the original team that built Biosphere 2 (see Biosphere 2 -- the Human Experiment, edited by Blake). With the philosopher-technologist John Bennett, a leading student of the 'fourth way' teacher Gurdjieff, and his team he worked on the development of methods of structural thinking called systematics that led to 'Structural Communication' (see Kieran Egan, Structural Communication) and 'LogoVisual Technology' (LVT for short , see entry in Wikipedia). In 1998 he co-founded the non-profit organisation DuVersity (in the USA) centred on dialogue for which he is Director of Studies (see He has authored several books, including the most recent, A Gymnasium of Beliefs in Higher Intelligence. He has worked with leading practitioners of Group Analysis, specifically Patrick de Mare inventor of the 'Median Group' and Gordon Lawrence discoverer of the Social Dreaming Matrix, conducting and filming video-conversations with them and others in the field. He has conducted transpersonal psychological seminars in the USA, Europe, Mexico and China as well as conducting <b>...</b> Blake on JG Bennett and the Sherborne Experiment
Gurdjieff Bennett Course July 2012
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  • Published: 15 Mar 2012
  • Duration: 5:32
  • Updated: 01 May 2012
Author: jgbennettfoundation
Practical course working with the ideas of GI Gurdjieff and JG Bennett Bennett Course July 2012
Awakened Human Beings
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  • Published: 27 Sep 2010
  • Duration: 2:32
  • Updated: 05 May 2012
Author: BarakaBee
Dr. Jacob Needleman Human Beings
remembering GI Gurdjieff
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  • Published: 07 Mar 2010
  • Duration: 1:51
  • Updated: 22 Jan 2012
Author: MastersofWisdom thoughts of some remarkable men of the 20th century on their teacher C.Daly King - AR Orage - Frank Lloyd Wright - Denis Saurat - John G. Bennett GI Gurdjieff
JG Bennett Foundation - Come experience Turkey & Western Anatolia with us October 2012 .wmv
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  • Published: 14 Feb 2012
  • Duration: 5:12
  • Updated: 01 May 2012
Author: jgbennettfoundation
JG Bennett Foundation inc - A tour of Turkey and Western Anatolia October 2 - 15, 2012 Bennett Foundation - Come experience Turkey & Western Anatolia with us October 2012 .wmv
Concerto in G minor-mvt 1 by David Bennett - Jeff Kodel and John Fairbanks
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  • Published: 18 May 2010
  • Duration: 5:10
  • Updated: 19 Apr 2012
Author: GaryKodel
Concerto in G minor for Tenor Saxophone and Piano by David Bennett Performed by Jeff Kodel (Sax) and John Fairbanks (Piano) - 5-15-10 in G minor-mvt 1 by David Bennett - Jeff Kodel and John Fairbanks
Daryl Hall - Babs and Babs
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  • Published: 24 Jan 2011
  • Duration: 7:51
  • Updated: 30 Mar 2012
Author: breathoffreshair360
Sacred Songs is American singer/songwriter Daryl Hall's first solo album. It was produced by guitarist Robert Fripp, who also played on the album. Both the lyrics and musical sounds of Sacred Sounds reflected Hall's personal philosophy. The lyrical content alludes to some of Hall's interests in esoteric magic (or "magick" as it is sometimes spelled). Rock music author Timothy White interviewed Hall for the book Rock Lives. In that interview Hall indicated that in 1974 he began a serious study of esoteric spirituality reading books on topics like the cabala, the ancient Celts, and the traditions of the Druids. He also became interested in the life and beliefs of Aleister Crowley. Crowley coined the concept of Thelema, magick concerned with harnessing the power of the imagination and willpower to effect changes in consciousness and in the material universe. For example the album track "Without Tears" is based on Crowley's book Magick Without Tears (published in 1973). Fripp shared similar interests in mysticism; he had studied with John G. Bennett, a disciple of GI Gurdjieff. The album was recorded in 1977 but Hall's label, RCA, did not release it for three years. According to Nick Tosches, who wrote Dangerous Dances, the authorized biography of Hall & Oates, "RCA refused to release Sacred Songs on the grounds that it wasn't commercial." Upon release, Sacred Songs sold fairly well, peaking at #58 on the Billboard Pop Albums chart; however, there was no hit single from the <b>...</b> Hall - Babs and Babs
John Also Bennett at ROY G BIV, playing a fan
  • Order:
  • Published: 07 Mar 2010
  • Duration: 2:28
  • Updated: 21 Apr 2011
Author: johnalsobennett
Pt. 2 - John Also Bennett at ROY G BIV Gallery, in Columbus OH. Performance as part of "Your Life is Not My Playground", a month of actions and performances Curated by Cassandra Troyan. Thanks to Justin Luna for the Video. 2010. Also Bennett at ROY G BIV, playing a fan
John Also Bennett Live at ROYGBIV, Columbus, OH
  • Order:
  • Published: 07 Mar 2010
  • Duration: 7:40
  • Updated: 21 Apr 2011
Author: johnalsobennett
John Also Bennett performance at ROY G BIV Gallery, in Columbus OH, 2010. Part of "Your Life is Not My Playground", a month of actions and performances Curated by Cassandra Troyan. Thanks to Justin Luna for the Video. Also Bennett Live at ROYGBIV, Columbus, OH
The Best Magic Effects Jokers to GO!
  • Order:
  • Published: 25 Dec 2006
  • Duration: 1:43
  • Updated: 05 Feb 2011
Author: KarmaBennett
John G. my bros and i love to perform john g stuff. JOHN G JOHN G! Best Magic Effects Jokers to GO!
Concerto in G Minor - David Bennett
  • Order:
  • Published: 24 Feb 2010
  • Duration: 5:43
  • Updated: 04 Apr 2012
Author: ShastaorSpicky
A final exam piece for June 2009. I KNOW one of the major parts was completely screwed up, and I KNOW the sound is quite horrible in some spots, so please be nice when commenting. I like CONSTRUCTIVE criticism. I just want to know what could have been done to make it better (though spare the obvious remarks please). in G Minor - David Bennett
Scarlet Street: Edward G. Robinson, Joan Bennett, Margaret Lindsay (1945 Movie)
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  • Published: 08 Aug 2011
  • Duration: 1:41:27
  • Updated: 11 May 2012
Author: nologorecords
DVD: Scarlet Street is a 1945 American film noir directed by Fritz Lang and based on the French novel La Chienne (The Bitch) by Georges de La Fouchardière, that previously had been dramatized on stage by André Mouëzy-Éon, and cinematically as La Chienne (1931) by director Jean Renoir. The principal actors Edward G. Robinson, Joan Bennett, and Dan Duryea, had earlier appeared together in The Woman in the Window (1944) also directed by Fritz Lang. The three were re-teamed for Scarlet Street. The film was later featured in an episode of Cinema Insomnia. Christopher "Chris" Cross (Edward G. Robinson), a meek amateur painter and cashier for clothing retailer JJ Hogarth & Company, is fêted by his employer, honoring him for twenty-five years of dull, repetitive service. Hogarth presents him with a watch and kind words, then leaves getting into a car with a beautiful young blonde. Walking home in Greenwich Village, Chris muses to an associate, "I wonder what it's like to be loved by a young girl." He helps prostitute Kitty (Joan Bennett), an amoral fast-talking femme fatale, he sees being apparently being attacked by a man, stunning the assailant with his umbrella. Chris is unaware that the attacker was Johnny (Dan Duryea), Kitty's brutish boyfriend, and sees her safely to her apartment building. Out of gratitude and bemusement, she accepts his offer for a cup of coffee at a nearby bar. From Chris's comments about art, Kitty believes him to be a <b>...</b> Street: Edward G. Robinson, Joan Bennett, Margaret Lindsay (1945 Movie)
Tony Bennett with Robert Farnon Orchestra - The Christmas Song
  • Order:
  • Published: 13 Dec 2009
  • Duration: 2:37
  • Updated: 04 May 2012
Author: 60otaku3
Tony Bennett with Robert Farnon Orchestra - The Christmas Song (1967) Personnel: Tony Bennett (vo), Bert Collins, Al De Risi, Johnny Frosk, Bernie Glow (tp), Jim Buffington, Joseph De Angelis, Joseph Singer (frh), Paul Faulise, Lou McGarity, John Messner, Chauncey Welsch (tb), Walt Levinsky, Romeo Penque, Sol Schlinger, William J. Slapin, Bobby Tricarico (sax), Joe Soldo (f), Barry Galbraith (g), John Bunch (p, celeste), Milt Hinton (b), Dave Carey (per), Nick Perito (cel), Gloria Agostini (hrp), Seymour Barab, Lucien Schmidt, Tony Sophos, Nate Stuch (vc), Lamar Alsop, Fred Buldrini, Harry Glickman, Harold Kohon, Charles Libove, Harry Lookofsky, Carmel Malin, David Nadian, John Pintavalle, Max Polikoff, Matthew Raimondi, Aaron Rosand, Julius Schachter, Gerald Tarack, Al Brown, Harold Colletta, David Schwartz, Emanuel Vardi (vl), Robert Farnon (con, arr) from the album 'THE TONY BENNETT CHRISTMAS ALBUM' Bennett with Robert Farnon Orchestra - The Christmas Song
Expansion of Federal Criminal Power: Too Much or Too Little? 11-18-10
  • Order:
  • Published: 24 Nov 2010
  • Duration: 0:00
  • Updated: 10 Apr 2011
Author: TheFederalistSociety
The Federalist Society's Criminal Law & Procedure Practice Group hosted this panel discussion on "Expansion of Federal Criminal Power: Too Much or Too Little?" at the 2010 National Lawyers Convention on Thursday, November 18, 2010. Panelists included Prof. John S. Baker, Jr., of Louisiana State University Law Center; Prof. Sara Sun Beale of Duke University School of Law; Mr. Bradford A. Berenson of Sidley Austin LLP; Mr. Noah D. Bookbinder of the United States Senate's Committee on the Judiciary; and The Honorable Edwin Meese III, of The Heritage Foundation as the moderator. Prof. John G. Malcolm of Pepperdine University School of Law gave the introduction. THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 18 Criminal Law: Expansion of Federal Criminal Power: Too Much or Too Little? 11:45 am -- 1:45 pm --Prof. John S. Baker, Jr., Dale E. Bennett Professor of Law, Paul M. Hebert Law Center, Louisiana State University --Prof. Sara Sun Beale, Charles LB Lowndes Professor, Duke University School of Law --Mr. Bradford A. Berenson, Partner, Sidley Austin LLP --Mr. Noah D. Bookbinder, Chief Counsel for Criminal Justice, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate --Moderator: Hon. Edwin Meese III, Ronald Reagan Distinguished Fellow in Public Policy, Chairman, Center for Legal and Judicial Studies, The Heritage Foundation, and former United States Attorney General --Introduction: Prof. John G. Malcolm, Distinguished Visiting Practitioner in Residence, Pepperdine University School of Law The Mayflower <b>...</b> of Federal Criminal Power: Too Much or Too Little? 11-18-10
4:02 / 2:33:12
  • Anthony Blake on JG Bennett and the Sherborne Experiment...3:26
  • Gurdjieff Bennett Course July 2012...5:32
  • Awakened Human Beings...2:32
  • remembering GI Gurdjieff...1:51
  • JG Bennett Foundation - Come experience Turkey & Western Anatolia with us October 2012 .wmv...5:12
  • Concerto in G minor-mvt 1 by David Bennett - Jeff Kodel and John Fairbanks...5:10
  • Daryl Hall - Babs and Babs...7:51
  • John Also Bennett at ROY G BIV, playing a fan...2:28
  • John Also Bennett Live at ROYGBIV, Columbus, OH...7:40
  • The Best Magic Effects Jokers to GO!...1:43
  • Concerto in G Minor - David Bennett...5:43
  • Scarlet Street: Edward G. Robinson, Joan Bennett, Margaret Lindsay (1945 Movie)...1:41:27
  • Tony Bennett with Robert Farnon Orchestra - The Christmas Song...2:37
  • Expansion of Federal Criminal Power: Too Much or Too Little? 11-18-10...0:00
Practical course working with the ideas of GI Gurdjieff and JG Bennett
An­tho­ny Blake on JG Ben­nett and the Sher­borne Ex­per­i­ment
Gur­d­ji­eff Ben­nett Course July 2012
Awak­ened Human Be­ings
re­mem­ber­ing GI Gur­d­ji­eff
JG Ben­nett Foun­da­tion - Come ex­pe­ri­ence Turkey & West­ern Ana­to­lia with us Oc­to­ber 2012 .wmv
Con­cer­to in G mi­nor-mvt 1 by David Ben­nett - Jeff Kodel and John Fair­banks
Daryl Hall - Babs and Babs
John Also Ben­nett at ROY G BIV, play­ing a fan
John Also Ben­nett Live at ROYG­BIV, Colum­bus, OH
The Best Magic Ef­fects Jok­ers to GO!
Con­cer­to in G Minor - David Ben­nett
Scar­let Street: Ed­ward G. Robin­son, Joan Ben­nett, Mar­garet Lind­say (1945 Movie)
Tony Ben­nett with Robert Farnon Or­ches­tra - The Christ­mas Song
Ex­pan­sion of Fed­er­al Crim­i­nal Power: Too Much or Too Lit­tle? 11-18-10
jg ben­nett on ed­u­ca­tion
Work­force de­vel­op­ment meet­ing at Wire­grass Tech --G. Nor­man Ben­nett @ VLCIA 19 July 2011
We Are...​Eye Cen­ter South
Black­jack Woman - Ben­nett Shel­ton Jr.
Mun­ster Hurl­ing Cham­pi­onship 2008 Clare v Wa­ter­ford John Mul­lane point
Mon­dotek - Drop Gen­er­a­tion it 2011 (Francesco G! & Ia­copo Z. Boot­leg Mash Up)
[PP #9 Web TV] Hal­loween Spe­cial w/Be­hind-the-Scenes Triv­ia!
John Godolphin Bennett, (8 June 1897 - 13 December 1974) was a British mathematician, scientist, technologist, industrial research director, and author. He is perhaps best known for his many books on psychology and spirituality, and particularly the teachings of G.I. Gurdjieff. Bennett met Gurdjieff in Constantinople in 1921, and later helped to co-ordinate the work of Gurdjieff in England after Gurdjieff's arrival in Paris. He also was active in starting the British section of the Subud movement, and co-founded its British headquarters.

Bennett was born in London, England, educated at Kings College School, London; Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; School of Military Engineering, Chatham; and School of Oriental Studies, London.

He was a Fellow of the Institute of Fuel, London, from 1938 onwards; Chairman, Conference of Research Associations, 1943–1945; Chairman, Solid Fuel Industry, British Standards Institution, 1937–1942; Chairman and Director, Institute for the comparative study of History, Philosophy, and the Sciences, Kingston upon Thames, 1946–1959.

Early life, World War I, marriage

Bennett spent his early childhood in Italy, and learned to speak Italian before he spoke English. He would later display an extraordinary talent for languages, which enabled him to talk with many spiritual teachers in their native tongues, and to study Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic and Christian sacred texts in their original forms.

Bennett makes little reference to his childhood in his autobiography, 'Witness', but elsewhere he credits his mother with instilling in him the virtues of hard work and tolerance.

At school, he excelled in sports and captained the school rugby football team. He won a scholarship in mathematics from Oxford University, but never had the chance to take advantage of this. He continued to play rugby football for the army (against such opponents as the New Zealand national team), breaking his arm once and his collar bone twice.

In the First World War, at the age of twenty-one, Bennett became a captain in the Royal Engineers, with responsibility for signals and telegraphy.

In France in 1918, he was blown off his motorcycle by an exploding shell. Taken to a military hospital, operated upon, and apparently in a coma for six days, Bennett had an out-of-body experience which convinced him that there is something in man which can exist independently of the body. :"It was perfectly clear to me that being dead is quite unlike being very ill or very weak or helpless. So far as I was concerned, there was no fear at all. And yet I have never been a brave man and was certainly still afraid of heavy gun fire. I was cognizant of my complete indifference toward my own body."

This set his life on a new course - he described the return to normal existence as the return to a body that was now in some sense a stranger.

Bennett was recruited as an intelligence officer, studied Turkish, and was sent to Constantinople, where he held a sensitive position in Anglo-Turkish relations. His fluency made him the confidant of many high-ranking Turkish political figures, and helped him to develop his knowledge of Turkey and to gain insights into non-European ways of thinking. :"All day long I was dealing with different races: English, French, Italian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Kurdish, Russian, Arab, Jews and people so mixed up as to be no race at all. Each and every one was convinced of the superiority of his own people. How could everyone be right and all the rest wrong? It was nonsense."

His love of Turkey would remain with him for the rest of his life.

After the war, Bennett had married his first wife, Evelyn, with whom he had a daughter, Ann. Evelyn stayed in England, however, and Bennett's immersion in Turkish affairs and his relationship with Winifred Beaumont, an English woman living in Turkey, placed increasing strain on the marriage, which subsequently failed. Bennett later married Winifred, a woman twenty years his senior, and they remained together until her death, forty years later. (He would be married for a third time in 1958, to Elizabeth Howard.)

Gurdjieff and Ouspensky

After the First World War and the Russian Revolution, many displaced people passed through Constantinople en route to the West. Part of Bennett's job was to monitor their movements. Among them were G.I. Gurdjieff and P.D. Ouspensky, who Bennett met through Prince Sabaheddin, a reformist thinker who had introduced him to a wide range of religious and occultist ideas, including Theosophy and Anthroposophy.

Bennett became determined to pursue the search for a deeper reality. It was a search he would continue for his entire life.

When Gurdjieff and Ouspensky moved on to Europe, Bennett remained in Turkey, committed to his work and fascinated by the political and social developments that finally led to the fall of the sultanate and the proclamation, on October 29, 1923 of the Turkish republic. However, Bennett had been profoundly impressed with Gurdjieff's ideas about the arrangement of the human organism and the possibility of a man's transformation to a higher state of being, and would later dedicate much of his life to the elaboration and dissemination of those ideas. Bennett approved the permission certificate to M. Kemal Atatürk to Samsun, that he started Turkish Independence struggle there.

Gurdjieff founded his Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man at the Château Le Prieuré in Fontainebleau-Avon, south of Paris, in October 1922. Bennett visited in the summer of 1923, spending three months at the institute. This experience further convinced him that Gurdjieff had profound knowledge and understanding of techniques by which man can achieve transformation. Gurdjieff encouraged Bennett to stay longer, but Bennett was short of money and so felt obliged to return to work in England. Though Bennett expected to return to the group soon, he would not meet Gurdjieff again until 1948.

Bennett served the British government as a consultant on the Middle East, and interpreted at the 1924 conference in London intended to settle disputes between Greece and Turkey. He was invited to stand for parliament, but he chose instead to give his personal studies precedence over his public life.

He joined Ouspensky's groups, and continued to study Gurdjieff's system with them for fifteen years, though Ouspensky broke off all contact with Gurdjieff himself in the early 1920s.

Coal Industry

During this time, Bennett became involved with various coal mining ventures in Greece and Turkey. These were ultimately unsuccessful, but gave him expertise in mining and coal chemistry. He spent four years in Greece, and was involved in protracted negotiations involving land claims by members of the deposed Turkish royal family.

In 1938, he was asked to head Britain's first industrial research organization, the British Coal Utilisation Research Association (BCURA). With the outbreak of World War II, BCURA's research was focussed on developing fuel efficient fireplaces and finding alternatives to oil. BCURA developed cars powered by coal-gas and a coal-based plastic.

Group Work

In 1941, Ouspensky left England to live in the United States. By now, Bennett was running his own study groups and giving talks on the subject of Gurdjieff's system. The groups continued and expanded in London throughout the Second World War.

Bennett began writing and developing his own ideas in addition to Gurdjieff's. Ouspensky repudiated him in 1945, which proved very painful for Bennett, who had also lost touch with Gurdjieff, and believed him to be dead.

:"Ouspensky fell under the impression that Bennett was setting himself up as a teacher and plagiarising his lecture material. Instructions were sent to all members of Ouspensky's groups to disassociate themselves from Bennett, who found himself vilified and ostracised, but still supported by a small loyal following. He decided to go ahead with his work of communicating his understanding of the System to people, and to create a society or institute to serve as its vehicle."

Coombe Springs

In 1946, Bennett and his wife founded the Institute for the Comparative Study of History, Philosophy and the Sciences:

:"To promote research and other scientific work in connection with the factors which influence development and retrogression in man and their operation in individuals and communities; to investigate the origin and elaboration of scientific hypotheses and secular and religious philosophies and their bearing on general theories of Man and his place in the universe; and to study comparative methodology in history, philosophy and natural science."

The Institute bought Coombe Springs, a seven-acre estate in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, which had housed research laboratories used by BUCRA. The Bennetts moved in with ten of Bennett's closest pupils with the intention of starting a small research community. Coombe Springs became a center for group work, and in addition to the small community who lived there permanently, hundreds of people visited Coombe Springs for meetings and Summer Schools.

The old laboratories were used as dormitory space and known as the 'fishbowl' because of the amount of glass they had. A 'new building' was later built for superior accommodation. The main house was used for meetings as well as accommodation. Coombe Springs took its name from an original Elizabethan Spring House in the grounds, which, until the mid-nineteenth century, had provided water to the palace at Hampton Court.

Bennett was convinced that the Gurdjieff's system could be reconciled with modern science. He started work on a five-dimensional geometry which included 'eternity' as a second time-like dimension. introducing this in his first published book, 'The Crisis in Human Affairs' (1948).

Reunion with Gurdjieff

Ouspensky had died in 1947. In 1948, Bennett went to the USA and met Ouspensky's wife, through whom he learned that Gurdjieff had survived the French occupation and was living in Paris. Though it was now twenty five years since they had last met (due mainly to Ouspensky's long standing veto on Gurdjieff to members of his groups), Bennett quickly decided to renew contact. In the eighteen months before Gurdjieff's death (in October, 1949), Bennett visited him frequently, despite his heavy professional schedule (he was now working for the Powell Duffryn coal company) and his responsibilities towards the group work at Coombe Springs.

A month spent working very intensively with Gurdjieff's group in the summer of 1949 laid the foundation for a significant transformation in his life and spiritual work. At that time, Gurdjieff's apartment in Paris had become a 'Mecca' to the 'followers of his ideas' who converged from many different countries. Bennett learnt of Gurdjieff's writings, and read "Beelzebub's Tales To His Grandson" for the first time. At the beginning of 1949, Bennett was named as Gurdjieff's 'Representative for England' and later gave public lectures in London on Gurdjieff and his ideas.

This period was described in Elizabeth Bennett's book "Idiots in Paris", which was based on Bennett's diaries and her own memories.

Gurdjieff's death in 1949 was a serious blow for all his followers. Disagreements arose in the group, partly as a result of Gurdjieff's having afforded his closest associates conflicting areas of authority. In Bennett's case, the conflict was exacerbated by his own interpretation and development of Gurdieff's ideas.

After Gurdjieff's death, the various groups looked to Jeanne de Salzmann to give them direction and hold them together, but there was little inherent harmony between them. At this time Bennett was a member of a small group headed by Madame de Salzmann, putting his work at Coombe Springs under her overall guidance. In 1950, Bennett was falsely accused of harbouring communists on his staff and was forced to resign from Powell Dufryn (later resisting several attractive offers to return to a career in industrial research and administration). This left him free to concentrate more fully on the group work at Coombe Springs. He lectured frequently, trying to fulfill a promise he had made to Gurdjieff to do everything in his power to propagate his ideas. Friendly relations continued with Madame de Salzmann and her groups throughout 1951 and 1952, but by then Bennett was convinced that his more senior students were not making progress, and that he had to find out for himself whether there still existed an ancient tradition or source from which Gurdjieff had derived his teaching.

Travels in the Middle East

In 1953, he undertook a long journey to the Middle East, visiting Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Persia. His search, chronicled in his book 'Journeys in Islamic Countries' brought him into contact with Sufis of extraordinary accomplishment, such as Emin Chikou and Farhad Dede, but he found in none of them the quality he perceived in Gurdjieff, of universal understanding transcending local conditioning.

During 1954, there were increasingly evident differences of opinion between Bennett and Madame de Salzmann regarding the promulgation of Gurdjieff's teachings, and Bennett came to realise that an effectual working relationship with her groups was not possible. Bennett wished to execute Gurdjieff's last directives literally, by disseminating his ideas and writings as widely as possible, especially ''Beelzebub's Tales to his Grandson'', which Madame de Salzmann wanted to keep away from the public eye.

In 1955, he initiated a project to build an unusual nine-sided meeting hall at Coombe Springs for the performance of Gurdjieff's sacred dance movements. This, together with his public lectures in London, completed the rift with Madame de Salzmann. The project took two years to complete. At the opening in 1957, Bennett commented that the real value of such a project was in building a community rather than the building itself.


In 1956, Bennett was introduced to Subud, a spiritual movement originating in Java. For a number of reasons, Bennett felt that Gurdjieff had expected the arrival of a teaching from Indonesia, and in spite of deep reservations, Bennett was 'opened' by Husein Rofe in November of that year.

Bennett regarded the latihan, the spiritual exercise of Subud, as being akin to what the mystics call diffuse contemplation. He also felt that it had the power of awakening conscience, the organ that Gurdjieff regarded as necessary for salvation. An invitation was sent to the movement's founder, Muhammad (Pak) Subuh to come to England. Pak Subuh came to Coombe Springs where all of Bennett's pupils were given the opportunity to be 'opened'.

It was a highly explosive event that included the miraculous cure of the film star, Eva Bartok, and, subsequently, the violent death of one of Bennett's pupils. In an extraordinarily short time, Bennett found himself instrumental in spreading Subud all over the world. He traveled extensively to spread the Subud message, sometimes in the company of Pak Subuh. Bennett translated Pak Subuh's lectures into various languages, and his own introductory book, 'Concerning Subud', sold thousands of copies worldwide.

Bennett's heavy involvement in Subud meant a gradual fading away of the work-group activities and exercises that had been practised until the advent of Subud. The meeting hall was left without its intended viewers' balcony and its striking pentagonal floor was filled in to allow for latihans. Its original purpose was not to be fulfilled for many years.

Some of Bennett's pupils were dismayed. Subud seemed to some to be the antithesis of Gurdjieff's methods for spiritual awakening, and Bennett's enthusiasm for it served to deepen the divisions within the Gurdjieff groups. Many people left the Coombe Springs groups, but others came in large numbers, and for several years Coombe Springs was the headquarters of the Subud movement in Europe, attracting serious seekers and sensation seekers.

In 1958, monks from the Benedictine Abbey of St. Wandrille, interested in Subud, contacted Bennett who, the following year, made the first of many visits which brought him into close contact with the Catholic Church. Pere Bescond was the first monk to be 'opened', followed by many others. It was at St. Wandrille that Bennett had a deep experience of the destined unification of Islam and Christianity. This possibility had haunted him for a long time and he had given it philosophical expression, through his concept of essential will, in 'The Dramatic Universe'. Soon after, he entered the Catholic Church.

By 1960, Bennett had come to the conclusion that the practice of 'latihan' alone was inadequate, and he resumed the work that he had learned from Gurdjieff. By 1962, after devoting himself selflessly to its growth and expansion, Bennett left the Subud organization, feeling that a return to the Gurdjieff method was necessary.

Although he maintained to the end of his life that he had derived great benefit from Subud, it was now the turn of Subud members to be dismayed, and many turned against him.

Meanwhile the Institute had been largely given over to Subud to the extent, at one time, of instigating a move to forbid the sale of Gurdjieff's books at Coombe Springs. In spite of this, Bennett reinstated lecture courses on psychokinetics, an action that led to increasing conflict among the membership.

A battle of power ensued in 1962 that resulted in Subud acquiring its own organization and Bennett resigning from the Subud brotherhood and his role as leader of the Coombe Springs Community and Director of Research of the Institute.

From 1963, the pattern of exercises that were subsequently followed at Coombe Springs combined the latihan with different techniques such as the Gurdjieff movements. The meeting hall was completed with the fitting of a balcony for viewers and an external access through stairs for spectators. Lectures were held on topics ranging from Sufism to Synchronicity, and Bennett resumed work on the final volumes of his "personal whim", the epic 'The Dramatic Universe', which he had been working on for more than ten years, constantly writing, revising and re-writing.

The Shivapuri Baba

Meanwhile, Bennett had made contact with the Shivapuri Baba, a Hindu sage living in Nepal. He had first heard of the Shivapuri Baba in the early 1940s, and now learned from Paul Ripman (a fellow student of Ouspensky) that the yogi was still alive.

Bennett visited the Shivapuri Baba twice between 1961 and 1963, by which time the Shivapuri Baba was reportedly 137 years old. Bennett was impressed with the vitality and simplicity of the Shivapuri Baba's teaching, and later referred to him as his teacher. Bennett undertook to propagate the Shivapuri Baba's teaching, and made various attempts to incorporate it into his own work.

The Shivapuri Baba died in 1963, shortly after he had approved the draft for his biography, Bennett's 'Long Pilgrimage - The Life and Teaching of the Shivapuri Baba'.


In the summer of 1962, Bennett gave a seminar on Spiritual Psychology in which the various elements he had received (particularly from Gurdjieff, Subud and the Shivapuri Baba) were integrated into a coherent psycho-cosmology. This marked a major step in his understanding of a comprehensive methodology that combined both active and receptive 'lines of work'.

By this time Bennett was also working with a group of young scientists called ISERG (Integral Science Research Group) headed by Tony Hodgson and soon joined by A.G.E. Blake and others. This group investigated educational methods, the nature of science and similar subjects. The group maintained a contact with David Bohm, one of the most original minds in contemporary physics.

Research Fellowships were created to enable Hodgson and Blake to concentrate their time on educational work. Out of this came the idea of structural communication which led the Institute into co-operative work with G.E.C. in the field of teaching machines.

In 1963, Bennett launched the Institute's journal, 'Systematics'. The journal was designed to spread the ideas of the discipline of Systematics, a practical analytical method based on his own researches into the laws governing processes in the natural world. The journal ran for eleven years with major contributions from all disciplines.

Idries Shah

While the educational work was progressing, Bennett learned of Idries Shah, an exponent of Sufism. When they met, Shah presented Bennett with a document supporting his claim to represent the 'Guardians of the Tradition'. Bennett and other followers of Gurdjieff's ideas were astonished to meet a man claiming to represent what Gurdjieff had called 'The Inner Circle of Humanity', something they had discussed for so long without hope of its concrete manifestation.

Bennett introduced "teaching stories" to his groups on Shah's instructions. These are now widely published and recognized as important teaching materials containing the essence of Sufi knowledge and insight.

It remained unclear as to what the future relationship between the Institute, Bennett and Shah could become. Eventually Bennett decided to put Coombe Springs at Shah's disposal to do with as he saw fit. In October 1965 at an extraordinary General Meeting of the Institute, Bennett persuaded the membership to take this step.

Shah originally indicated that he would take Bennett's psychological groups under his own wing. Bennett welcomed this, as it would allow him to concentrate on research and writing. However, he again found himself unpopular - not only with conservatives within the Institute, but also with other followers of Idries Shah and members of his organisation SUFI (Society for the Understanding of the Foundation of Ideas).

In the spring of 1966, The Institute for Comparative Study donated Coombe Springs to Shah, who promptly sold it for a housing development. The Djamee was destroyed. About half the people who had studied under Bennett were integrated into his groups while the rest were left 'in the air'. The Institute was left with the educational research work as its main focus. The work with the Hirst Research Laboratories of G.E.C. bore fruit in the new teaching machine, the 'Systemaster', and Bennett organised various young people around him to write and develop teaching materials that followed the structural communication method.

Bennett and some of the Coombe Springs residents had moved into a nearby house in Kingston upon Thames, where the family (the Bennetts now had two sons and two young daughters) would live quietly for four years before Bennett embarked on his last great project - an experimental school for passing on techniques for spiritual transformation.

International Academy for Continuous Education

By 1969 the company which had been formed to explore structural communication - Structural Communication Systems Ltd. - was floundering and Bennett's health, too, was in a dangerous state. After his recovery, Bennett looked afresh at the situation and the conviction came to him that he should take up the work that Gurdjieff had started at the Prieuré in 1923 and been forced to abandon. He would start a School of the Fourth Way.

Bennett became very interested in young people, especially those who surfaced from the social and cultural turmoil of the 1960s with serious questions about the significance of life but with few satisfactory answers. As part of his research, Bennett attended the rock music festival on the Isle of Wight in 1970. The outcome was the establishment of an "academy" to teach some of what he had learned in trying to discover the "sense and aim of life, and of human life in particular."

On the twenty fifth anniversary of the Institute, in April 1971, a jubilee celebration on the theme of The Whole Man was held. In a very short time, primarily in the USA, Bennett recruited many students and in October 1971 the International Academy for Continuous Education was inaugurated in Sherborne, Gloucestershire.

Bennett had begun this enterprise with no programme in mind and with only a handful of helpers. Initially, his ideas had involved running a school in the midst of 'life-conditions' in Kingston with two dozen students, but contact with a young representative of the New Age Movement in the USA persuaded him to think in terms of larger numbers and a relatively isolated locale in the countryside. Bennett realized that work on the land (which he considered to be an essential part of teaching the proper relationship between mankind and the rest of creation) would require a larger number. Both Hasan Shushud and Idries Shah made recommendations that, for the most part, he disregarded.

He quickly attracted one hundred pupils, and in 1971, with the support of the Institute for Comparative Study, he inaugurated the International Academy for Continuous Education, in the village of Sherborne, Gloucestershire, England.

The name was chosen "to indicate on the one hand its Platonic inspiration and on the other to emphasize that it was to offer a teaching for the whole life of the men and women who came to it."

As he tells the story in his autobiography, although various spiritual leaders had urged him at various points in his life to strike out on his own path, it was not until near the end of his years that he felt fully confident to assume the mantle of the teacher. Bennett relates how Gurdjieff had told him in 1923 that one day Bennett would "follow in his footsteps and take up the work he had started at Fontainebleau." In 1970, following the promptings of a still, small voice from within that said, "You are to found a school",

Bennett proposed that there should be five experimental courses each of ten months duration. The courses proved fruitful, and many people have continued, as he had hoped, to work with the ideas and methods he presented.

In April 1972, the Sufi Hasan Shushud came to stay for a few months at the Academy. The two had met in Turkey ten years previously, and Hasan Shushud had visited Bennett's Surrey home in 1968, when Bennett was initiated in Shushud's wordless, universal zikr, which, Bennett concluded, bore results similar to those of the latihan, while omitting many of the risks attendant on 'opening' unprepared people. Bennett had since grown increasingly attracted to the Khwajagan, the Masters of Wisdom of Central Asia extolled by Hasan. Bennett worked on a version of the Sufi's book Hacegan Hanedani, to be published jointly under his and Shushud's names (Shushud eventually refused to have a book published with his name joined with that of a Christian). He was also working on a book concerning Gurdjieff's ideas.

While criticising Bennett's methods, Hasan impressed on him that "Your only home is the Absolute Void". Shushud eventually agreed that what Bennett was doing was more suitable for young western seekers than his own strict methods of fasting and zikr.

In the same year, Bennett began editing Gurdjieff's Third Series of writings, 'Life is Real Only Then When I Am', undertaking its publication on behalf of the Gurdjieff family (who were having difficulties in dealing with the Gurdjieff Foundation). He also revisited Turkey, meeting with Hadji Muzaffer, the Sheikh of a Halveti Dervish Khalka.

During the period of the second course at the Academy, a Cambodian Buddhist Monk, the Reverend Mahathera V. Dharmawara, known as 'Bhante', came to Sherborne at Bennett's invitation. Techniques of meditation were introduced that continue to be practised by many people.

Other visitors were Suleiman Dede, head of the Mevlevi order in Konya, as well as his disciple Reshad Feild. Idries Shah paid a brief visit during the first year, but soon left, with harsh views on the attitudes and disposition of the students.

Throughout the period of the Institute's existence, Bennett had been toying with the idea of founding a spiritual community. He saw the Sermon on the Mount as a document describing the true community. His contact with Idries Shah combined this in his mind with the possibility of establishing a Power House where 'enabling energies' could be concentrated. He set his sights on some kind of self-sufficient community, populated by Sherborne graduates, to evolve out of the school. He was profoundly influenced by contemporary ideas, such as those of Schumacher, about the need for alternative technology and by the argument of conservationists for intelligent, ecologically sound agriculture. He was also greatly impressed that his spiritual hero and inner teacher, Khwaja Ubaidallah Ahrar (15th century) had turned to farming after his period of training.

Soaring price of land in the UK led to Bennett's interest in starting something in the USA. In 1974, he signed an agreement whereby the Institute loaned $100,000 to a newly formed society for the foundation of a psychokinetic community. He signed this document shortly before his death on December 13, 1974.

The Claymont Society was founded to attempt to carry out Bennett's vision, but without the help of his guidance.

In the Summer of 1974, he visited the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in Rome to question him about Transcendental Meditation and his interpretation of the Bhagavad Gita. Bennett had been initiated into TM several years before and first met the Maharishi in 1959. He disputed Maharishi's presentation of the Gita in which he eliminated the need for sacrifice and suffering.

In the last year of his life, he gradually made it known to those working with him, that his own personal task centred on the creation of a way of religious worship that would be accessible to men and women of the West who were lacking in religious formation. During this period he made experiments with the Islamic namaz and Sufi zikr.

The teachings he developed in his last years were recorded and published in a series of books put together by Anthony Blake. He showed that at last he was independent of Gurdjieff and had his own understanding of the spiritual world, based on a radical questioning of all current assumptions.

Bennett died on Friday, December 13, 1974, shortly after the start of the fourth course. That course, and the fifth, were completed by his wife, working with a few of his most experienced pupils.

With his death the Institute was faced with the typical problems of a body which had been led almost single-handedly by one man since its inception. The decision was taken to continue the Academy's work until the five-year period, originally specified by Bennett, had been completed. The setting up of the USA community at Claymont Court, West Virginia, went ahead..

In the months before he died, Bennett worked to establish an experimental "ideal human society" embodying the methods and ideas that he had developed and derived from Gurdjieff. He made substantial efforts to overcome the rifts that had grown between different groups of Gurdjieff's followers, and was beginning to talk about the development of new forms of worship appropriate for the modern world.


  • ''Creation'' (Exploration of the idea that man lives in many worlds)
  • ''Creative Thinking'' (The conditions necessary for creative insight)
  • ''Deeper Man'' (Gurdjieff's ideas applied to the critical condition of 20th century society)
  • ''Dramatic Universe, The'' (A search for a unified vision of reality)
  • ''Elementary Systematics: A Tool for Undertanding Wholes'' (Conceptual tool to find pattern in complexity. A handbook for business)
  • ''Energies: Material, Vital, Cosmic'' (exploration of the theory of Universal Energies'' developed from Gurdjieff's hints)
  • ''First Liberation, The'' ( Working with Themes at Sherborne House)
  • ''Gurdjieff: A Very Great Enigma'' (The ideas of Gurdjieff and the mystery that surrounded him)
  • ''Gurdjieff - Making a New World'' (Biography exploring Gurdjieff's role in bringing ancient wisdom to the West)
  • ''Hazard: The Risk of Realization'' (First book of talks given on ideas found in The Dramatic Universe)
  • ''How We Do Things: The Role of Attention in Spiritual Life'' (Chapters on Function, Sensitivity, Consciousness, Decision, & Creativity)
  • ''Intimations: Talks with J.G. Bennett at Beshara'' (talks given to students of Reshad Feild and of the great Sufi Mystic Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi)
  • ''Idiots In Paris'' (Diaries of Elizabeth & J.G. Bennett in Paris with Gurdjieff)
  • ''Is There Life On Earth?'' (Introduction to Gurdjieff's ideas arousing a practical concern for the future of life on this planet)
  • ''Journeys In Islamic Countries'' (Diaries of Bennetts's search for the sources of Gurdjieff's teachings)
  • ''Long Pilgrimage'' (The life and teaching of the Shivapuri Baba)
  • ''Making A Soul: Human Destiny and the Debt of Our Existence'' (Instruction based on Bennett's view of the fundamental purpose of human existence)
  • ''Masters Of Wisdom: An Esoteric History of the Spiritual Unfolding of Life on This Planet'' (Historical study and a vision of the workings of higher intelligence)
  • ''Needs Of A New Age Community: Talks on Spiritual Community & Schools'' (Includes Bennett's commentaries on 'The Sermon on the Mount')
  • ''Sacred Influences: Spiritual Action in Human Life'' (Essays on the qualities of Life, Nature, Doing, Wisdom, God, and Sacred Images)
  • ''The Sevenfold Work'' ('The Work' resolved into seven lines applicable to past and present practice and experience)
  • ''Sex'' (The relationship between sex and spiritual development)
  • ''The Spiritual Hunger Of The Modern Child'' (Bennett, Mario Montessori, A.I Polack and others on the nature of a child's spirituality)
  • ''A Spiritual Psychology'' ( a workbook for creating an organ of perception and mode of existence independent from the vagaries of life)
  • ''Sunday Talks At Coombe Springs'' (A collection of some of Bennett's most creative thinking)
  • ''Talks On Beelzebub's Tales'' (From Bennett's talks on Gurdjieff's series 'Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson'.
  • ''Transformation'' (The process by which a man can become a 'New Man')
  • ''Way To Be Free'' (Conversations between Bennett & his students on the difference between work done from the mind and work from essence)
  • ''What Are We Living For?'' (A critique of western culture)
  • ''Witness: The Story Of a Search'' (Autobiography)
  • Sources

  • Bennett, J. G. (1897-1974), a short biography at the
  • John G. Bennett - The Struggle to “Make Something” for Oneself by George Bennett
  • John Godolphin Bennett dossier by Alex Burns
  • History of the Institute for the Comparative Study Of History, Philosophy and the Sciences at The DuVersity
  • Catalog of Bennett's Books
  • Bennett Publishing Fund
  • External links

  • The ''Gurdjieff's Mission'' video explores Bennett's enigmatic relationship with Gurdjieff
  • John G. Bennett page at the Gurdjieff International Review website
  • Gurdjieff’s Temple Dances by John G. Bennett
  • Gurdjieff’s All and Everything - A Study by J. G. Bennett
  • A Call for a New Society by John G. Bennett
  • Systematics website including original Journal articles
  • Gurdjieff Albuquerque
  • Bennett Books all Bennett published books can be found here
  • Sabah newspaper from Turkey His signature, from 16 May 1919 Istanbul
  • Category:1897 births Category:1974 deaths Category:Fourth Way Category:Subud

    de:John G. Bennett eo:John Bennett it:John Godolphin Bennett ru:Беннетт, Джон Годолфин tr:John Godolphin Bennett

    This text is licensed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA License. This text was originally published on Wikipedia and was developed by the Wikipedia community.

    birth nameJoan Geraldine Bennett
    birth dateFebruary 27, 1910
    birth placePalisades Park, New Jersey, U.S.
    death dateDecember 07, 1990
    death placeScarsdale, New York, U.S.
    years active1916–82
    spouse(divorced) 1 child(divorced)1 child(divorced) 2 children }}
    Joan Geraldine Bennett (February 27, 1910 – December 7, 1990) was an American stage, film and television actress. Besides acting on the stage, Bennett appeared in more than 70 motion pictures from the era of silent movies well into the sound era. She is possibly best-remembered for her film noir femme fatale roles in director Fritz Lang's movies such as ''The Woman in the Window'' (1944) and ''Scarlet Street'' (1945).

    Bennett had three distinct phases to her long and successful career, first as a winsome blonde ingenue, then as a sensuous brunette femme fatale (with looks that movie magazines often compared to those of Hedy Lamarr), and finally as a warmhearted wife/mother figure.

    In 1951, Bennett's screen career was marred by scandal after her third husband, film producer Walter Wanger, shot and injured her agent Jennings Lang. Wanger suspected that Lang and Bennett were having an affair, a charge which she adamantly denied.

    In the 1960s, she achieved success for her portrayal of Elizabeth Collins Stoddard on TV's ''Dark Shadows'', for which she received an Emmy nomination. For her final movie role, as Madame Blanc in ''Suspiria'' (1977), she received a Saturn Award nomination.

    Early life

    She was born in the Palisades section of Fort Lee, New Jersey, the third of three daughters of actor Richard Bennett and actress/literary agent Adrienne Morrison. Adrienne Morrison's father was famous stage actor Lewis Morrison. Lewis Morrison (an Anglo-Scottish surname), whose real name was Morris Morris (an English, Scottish and Welsh surname), was a former mixed English and Spanish (his Spanish mother's maiden name was Carvalho) Confederate and Union lieutenant who served in the Confederate and Union Native Guards in the American Civil War. Her older sisters were actress Constance Bennett and actress/dancer Barbara Bennett, who was the mother of Morton Downey, Jr.

    Part of a famous theatrical family, Bennett's maternal grandfather was Jamaica-born Shakespearean actor Lewis Morrison, who embarked on a stage career in the late 1860s. He was of English and Spanish ancestry. On the side of her maternal grandmother, actress Rose Wood, the profession dated back to traveling minstrels in 18th century England.

    Bennett first appeared in a silent movie as a child with her parents and sisters in her father's drama ''The Valley of Decision'' (1916), which he adapted for the screen. She attended Miss Hopkins School for Girls in Manhattan, then St. Margaret's, a boarding school in Waterbury, Connecticut, and L'Hermitage, a finishing school in Versailles, France.

    On September 15, 1926, she and John M. Fox were married in London. They were divorced on July 30, 1928 in Los Angeles. They had one child, Adrienne Ralston Fox (born February 20, 1928, later named Diana Bennett Markey, then Diana Bennett Wanger)


    Bennett's stage debut was at age 18, acting with her father in ''Jarnegan'' (1928), which ran on Broadway for 136 performances and for which she received good reviews. By age 19, she had become a movie star through such roles as Phyllis Benton in the mystery/thriller talkie ''Bulldog Drummond'' starring Ronald Colman, which was her first important role, and Lady Clarissa Pevensey opposite George Arliss in the biopic ''Disraeli'' (both 1929).

    She moved quickly from movie to movie throughout the 1930s. Bennett appeared as a blonde (her natural hair color) for several years. She starred in the role of Dolores Fenton in the United Artists musical ''Puttin' on the Ritz'' (1930) opposite Harry Richman and as Faith Mapple, his beloved, opposite John Barrymore in an early sound version of ''Moby Dick'' (1930) at Warner Brothers Studios.

    Under contract to Fox Film Corporation, she appeared in several movies. Receiving top billing, she played the role of Jane Miller opposite Spencer Tracy in ''She Wanted a Millionaire'' (1932). She was billed second, after Tracy, for her role as Helen Riley, a personable waitress who trades wisecracks, in ''Me and My Gal'' (1932).

    On March 16, 1932, she married screenwriter/film producer Gene Markey in Los Angeles, but the couple divorced in Los Angeles on June 3, 1937. They had one child, Melinda Markey (born February 27, 1934).

    Bennett left Fox to play Amy, a pert sister competing with Katharine Hepburn's Jo in ''Little Women'' (1933), which was directed by George Cukor for RKO. This movie brought Bennett to the attention of independent film producer Walter Wanger, who signed her to a contract and began managing her career. She played the role of Sally MacGregor, a psychiatrist's young wife slipping into insanity, in ''Private Worlds'' (1935) with Claudette Colbert, Charles Boyer, and Joel McCrea. Wanger and director Tay Garnett persuaded Bennett to change her hair from blonde to brunette as part of the plot for her role as Kay Kerrigan in the scenic ''Trade Winds'' (1938) opposite Fredric March.

    With her change in appearance, Bennett began an entirely new screen career as her persona evolved into that of a glamorous, seductive femme fatale. She played the role of Princess Maria Theresa in ''The Man in the Iron Mask'' (1939) opposite Louis Hayward, and the role of the Grand Duchess Zona of Lichtenburg in ''The Son of Monte Cristo'' (1940) opposite Hayward.

    During the search for an actress to play Scarlett O'Hara in ''Gone with the Wind'', Bennett was given a screen test and impressed producer David O. Selznick to such an extent, she was one of the final four actresses along with Jean Arthur, Vivien Leigh and Paulette Goddard. Selznick eventually cast Vivien Leigh in the coveted role.

    On January 12, 1940, Bennett and Walter Wanger were married in Phoenix. They were divorced in September 1965 in Mexico. They had two children together, Stephanie Wanger (born June 26, 1943) and Shelley Wanger (born July 4, 1948). The following year on March 13, 1949, she became a grandmother at age 39. Similar to her co-star Elizabeth Taylor who became a grandmother at the same age.

    Combined with her sultry eyes and husky voice, Bennett's new brunette look gave her an earthier, more arresting persona. She won praise for her performances as Brenda Bentley in the crime/drama ''The House Across the Bay'' (1940), also featuring George Raft, and as Carol Hoffman in the anti-Nazi drama ''The Man I Married'', a film in which Francis Lederer also starred.

    She then appeared in a sequence of highly regarded film noir thrillers directed by Fritz Lang, with whom she and Wanger formed their own production company. Bennett appeared in four movies under Lang's direction, including as Cockney prostitute Jerry Stokes in ''Man Hunt'' (1941) opposite Walter Pidgeon, as mysterious model Alice Reed in ''The Woman in the Window'' (1944) with Edward G. Robinson, and as vulgar blackmailer Katharine "Kitty" March in ''Scarlet Street'' (1945), another film with Robinson.

    Bennett was the shrewish, cuckolding wife, Margaret Macomber, in Zoltan Korda's ''The Macomber Affair'' (1947) opposite Gregory Peck, as the deceitful wife, Peggy, in Jean Renoir's ''The Woman on the Beach'' (also 1947) opposite Robert Ryan and Charles Bickford, and as the tormented blackmail victim Lucia Harper in Max Ophuls' ''The Reckless Moment'' (1949) opposite James Mason. Then, easily shifting images again, she changed her screen persona to that of an elegant, witty and nurturing wife and mother in two classic comedies directed by Vincente Minnelli.

    Playing the role of Ellie Banks, wife of Spencer Tracy and mother of Elizabeth Taylor, Bennett appeared in both ''Father of the Bride'' (1950) and ''Father's Little Dividend'' (1951).

    She made a number of radio appearances from the 1930s to the 1950s, performing on such programs as ''The Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy Show'', ''Duffy's Tavern'', and the anthology series ''Lux Radio Theater''.

    With the increasing popularity of television, Bennett made five guest appearances in 1951, including an episode of Sid Caesar and Imogene Coca's ''Your Show of Shows''.


    For twelve years, Bennett was represented by agent Jennings Lang. She and the onetime vice-president of the Sam Jaffe Agency, who now headed MCA's West Coast television operations, met on the afternoon of December 13, 1951, to talk over an upcoming TV show.

    Bennett parked her Cadillac convertible in the lot at the back of the MCA offices, at Santa Monica Boulevard and Rexford Drive, across the street from the Beverly Hills Police Department, and she and Lang drove off in his car. Meanwhile, her husband Walter Wanger drove by at about 2:30 p.m. and noticed his wife's car parked there. Half an hour later, he again saw her car there and stopped to wait. Bennett and Lang drove into the parking lot a few hours later and he walked her to her convertible. As she started the engine, turned on the headlights and prepared to drive away, Lang leaned on the car, with both hands raised to his shoulders, and talked to her.

    In a fit of jealousy, Wanger walked up and twice shot and wounded the unsuspecting agent. One bullet hit Jennings in the right thigh, near the hip, and the other penetrated his groin. Bennett said she did not see Wanger at first. She said she suddenly saw two livid flashes, then Lang slumped to the ground. As soon as she recognized who had fired the shots, she told Wanger, "Get away and leave us alone." He tossed the pistol into his wife's car.

    She and the parking lot's service station manager took Lang to the agent's doctor. He was then taken to a hospital, where he recovered. The police, who had heard the shots, came to the scene and found the gun in Bennett's car when they took Wanger into custody. Wanger was booked and fingerprinted, and underwent lengthy questioning.

    "I shot him because I thought he was breaking up my home," Wanger told the chief of police of Beverly Hills. He was booked on suspicion of assault with intent to commit murder. Bennett denied a romance, however. "But if Walter thinks the relationships between Mr. Lang and myself are romantic or anything but strictly business, he is wrong," she declared. She blamed the trouble on financial setbacks involving film productions Wanger was involved with, and said he was on the verge of a nervous breakdown. The following day Wanger, out on bond, returned to their Holmby Hills home, collected his belongings and moved. Bennett, however, said there would not be a divorce.

    On December 14, Bennett issued a statement in which she said she hoped her husband "will not be blamed too much" for wounding her agent. She read the prepared statement in the bedroom of her home to a group of newspapermen while TV cameras recorded the scene.

    Wanger's attorney, Jerry Giesler, mounted a "temporary insanity" defense. He then decided to waive his rights to a jury and threw himself on the mercy of the court. Wanger served a four-month sentence in the County Honor Farm at Castaic, 39 miles north of Downtown Los Angeles, quickly returning to his career to make a series of successful films.

    Meanwhile, Bennett went to Chicago to appear on the stage in the role as the young witch Gillian Holroyd in ''Bell, Book, and Candle'', then went on national tour with the production.

    Bennett made only five movies in the decade that followed, as the shooting incident was a stain on her career and she became virtually blacklisted. Blaming the scandal that occurred for destroying her career in the motion picture industry, she once said, "I might as well have pulled the trigger myself." Although Humphrey Bogart, a longtime friend of Bennett's, pleaded with the studio on her behalf to keep her role as Amelie Ducotel in ''We're No Angels'' (1955), that movie proved to be one of her last.

    As the movie offers dwindled after the scandal, Bennett continued touring in stage successes, such as ''Susan and God'', ''Once More, with Feeling'', ''The Pleasure of His Company'' and ''Never Too Late''. Her next TV appearance was in the role as Bettina Blane for an episode of ''General Electric Theater'' in 1954. Other roles include Honora in ''Climax!'' (1955) and Vickie Maxwell in ''Playhouse 90'' (1957). In 1958, she appeared as the mother in the short-lived television comedy/drama ''Too Young to Go Steady'' to teenagers played by Brigid Bazlen and Martin Huston.

    She starred on Broadway in the comedy ''Love Me Little'' (1958), which ran for only eight performances.

    Later years

    Despite the shooting scandal and the damage it caused Bennett's career, she and Wanger remained married until 1965. She continued to work steadily on the stage and in television, including her guest role as Denise Mitchell in an episode of TV's ''Burke's Law'' ().

    Bennett was a cast regular on the gothic daytime television soap opera ''Dark Shadows'', which attracted a major cult TV following, for its entire five year run, 1966 to 1971, receiving an Emmy Award nomination in 1968 for her performance as Elizabeth Collins Stoddard, mistress of the haunted Collinwood Mansion. Her other roles on Dark Shadows were Naomi Collins, Judith Collins Trask, Elizabeth Collins Stoddard PT, Flora Collins, and Flora Collins PT. In 1970, she appeared as Elizabeth in ''House of Dark Shadows'', the feature film adaptation of the series. She declined to appear in the sequel ''Night of Dark Shadows'' however, and her character Elizabeth was mentioned as being recently deceased.

    Her autobiography, ''The Bennett Playbill'', written with Lois Kibbee, was published in 1970.

    Bennett is a recipient of the George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film.

    Other TV guest appearances include Bennett's roles as Joan Darlene Delaney in an episode of ''The Governor & J.J.'' (1970) and as Edith in an episode of ''Love, American Style'' (1971). She starred in five made-for-TV movies between 1972 and 1982.

    Bennett also appeared in one more feature film, as Madame Blanc in Italian director Dario Argento's horror thriller ''Suspiria'' (1977), for which she received a 1978 Saturn Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress.

    On February 14, 1978, she and retired publisher/movie critic David Wilde were married in White Plains, New York. Their marriage lasted until her death.

    Celebrated for not taking herself too seriously, Bennett said in a 1986 interview, "I don't think much of most of the films I made, but being a movie star was something I liked very much."


    Bennett died at age 80 from a heart attack at her home in Scarsdale, New York. She is interred in Pleasant View Cemetery, Lyme, Connecticut, with her parents.

    She has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her work in Motion Pictures, at 6310 Hollywood Boulevard, Hollywood.


    Bennett appeared in a large number of motion pictures, as well as network television productions, series work and made-for-TV movies, which are listed here in their entirety.

    ! Year ! Title ! Role Notes
    1916 '''' unborn soul
    1923 '''' Page uncredited
    1928 a dame
    1929 '''' extra uncredited
    1929 Phyllis Benton
    1929 Rose Gordon
    1929 Lady Clarissa Pevensey
    1929 Lucy Blackburn
    1930 Delores Fenton
    1930 ''Crazy That Way'' Ann Jordan
    1930 Faith Mapple, his beloved
    1930 ''Maybe It's Love (a.k.a. Eleven Men and a Girl)'' Nan Sheffield
    1930 Xandra, Lady Lasher
    1931 Pat Coster
    1931 Nina Wyndram
    1931 ''Hush Money'' Joan Gordon
    1932 ''She Wanted a Millionaire'' Jane Miller
    1932 ''Careless Lady'' Sally Brown
    1932 '''' Vivienne Ware
    1932 ''Week Ends Only'' Venetia Carr
    1932 Salomy Jane
    1932 ''Me and My Gal'' Helen Riley
    1933 ''Arizona to Broadway'' Lynn Martin
    1933 Amy
    1934 '''' Prudence Kirkland
    1934 '''' Adele Verin
    1935 ''Private Worlds'' Sally MacGregor
    1935 Lucy Rumford
    1935 ''Two for Tonight'' Bobbie Lockwood
    1935 ''She Couldn't Take It'' Carol Van Dyke
    1935 '''' Helen Berkeley
    1936 ''Big Brown Eyes'' Eve Fallon
    1936 ''Thirteen Hours by Air'' Felice Rollins
    1936 ''Two in a Crowd'' Julia Wayne
    1936 Monica "Rusty" Fleming
    1937 ''Vogues of 1938'' Wendy Van Klettering
    1938 ''I Met My Love Again'' Julie
    1938 '''' Ivy Preston
    1938 ''Artists and Models Abroads'' Patricia Harper
    1938 Kay Kerrigan
    1939 '''' Princess Maria Theresa
    1939 '''' Hilda
    1940 ''Green Hell'' Stephanie Richardson
    1940 '''' Brenda Bentley
    1940 '''' Carol Hoffman
    1940 '''' Grand Duchess Zona of Lichtenburg
    1941 ''She Knew All the Answers'' Gloria Winters
    1941 Jerry Stokes
    1941 ''Wild Geese Calling'' Sally Murdock
    1941 ''Confirm or Deny'' Jennifer Carson
    1942 '''' Anita Woverman
    1942 Julie Abbott
    1942 June Delaney
    1943 ''Margin for Error'' Sophia Baumer
    1944 '''' Alice Reed
    1945 Harriet Carruthers
    1945 ''Scarlet Street'' Katharine "Kitty" March
    1946 ''Colonel Effingham's Raid'' Ella Sue Dozier
    1947 '''' Margaret Macomber
    1947 '''' Peggy
    1948 ''Secret Beyond the Door...'' Celia Lamphere
    1948 ''Hollow Triumph'' Evelyn Hahn
    1949 '''' Lucia Harper
    1950 Ellie Banks
    1950 Lydia Bolton
    1951 ''Father's Little Dividend'' Ellie Banks
    1951 '''' Kathy Joplin
    1954 ''Highway Dragnet'' Mrs. Cummings
    1955 Amelie Ducotel
    1956 ''There's Always Tomorrow'' Marion Groves
    1956 ''Navy Wife'' Peg Blain
    1960 ''Desire in the Dust'' Mrs. Marquand
    1970 ''House of Dark Shadows'' Elizabeth Collins Stoddard
    1977 ''Suspiria'' Madame Blanc

    Television programs

    #''Nash Airflyte Theatre'' (1951) episode: ''Peggy'' #''Your Show of Shows'' (1951) 1 episode #''Danger'' (1951) episode: ''A Clear Case of Suicide'' #''Somerset Maugham TV Theatre'' (1951) episode: ''Smith Serves'' #''Somerset Maugham TV Theatre'' (1951) episode: ''The Dream'' #''General Electric Theater'' (1954) episode: ''You Are Young Only Once'' ... Bettina Blane #''The Best of Broadway'' (1954) episode: ''The Man Who Came to Dinner'' ... Lorraine Sheldon #''Climax!'' (1955) episode: ''The Dark Fleece'' ... Honora #''The Ford Television Theatre'' (1955) episode: ''Letters Marked Personal'' ... Marcia Manners #''The Ford Television Theatre'' (1956) episode: ''Dear Diane'' ... Marion #''Playhouse 90'' (1957) episode: ''The Thundering Wave'' ... Vickie Maxwell #''The DuPont Show of the Month'' (1957) episode: ''Junior Miss'' ... Grace Graves #''Pursuit'' (1958) episode: ''Epitaph for a Golden Girl'' #''Too Young to Go Steady'' (1959) (own series) ... Mary Blake #''Mr. Broadway'' (1964) episode: ''Don't Mention My Name in Sheboygan'' ... Mrs. Kelsey #''Burke's Law'' (1965) episode: ''Who Killed Mr. Colby in Ladies' Lingerie?'' ... Denise Mitchell #''Dark Shadows'' (1966–1971) (series regular, 386 episodes) ... Elizabeth Collins Stoddard #''The Governor & J.J.'' (1970) episode: ''Check the Check'' ... Joan Darlene Delaney #''Love, American Style'' (1971) episode segment: ''Love and the Second Time'' ... Edith #''Dr. Simon Locke'' (1972) episode: ''The Cortessa Rose'' ... Cortessa

    Made-for-TV movies

    #''Gidget Gets Married'' (1972) ... Claire Ramsey #''The Eyes of Charles Sand'' (1972) ... Aunt Alexandra #''Suddenly, Love'' (1978) ... Mrs. Graham #''This House Possessed'' (1981) ... Rag Lady #''Divorce Wars: A Love Story'' (1982) ... Adele Burgess

    As herself

  • ''Screen Actors'' (1950) (uncredited)
  • ''The Colgate Comedy Hour'' (1951]) 1 episode
  • ''What's My Line?'' (1951) 1 episode
  • ''The Ken Murray Show'' (1951) 1 episode
  • ''Ford Festival'' (1951)
  • ''Climax!'' (1956) episode: ''The Louella Parsons Story''
  • ''To Tell the Truth'' (1958) 1 episode
  • ''The Mike Douglas Show'' (1964, 1967, 1970, 1970, 1977) 5 episodes
  • ''The Merv Griffin Show'' (1967) 1 episode
  • ''Personality'' (1968) 1 episode
  • ''The Hollywood Squares'' (1970) 1 episode
  • ''The Virginia Graham Show'' (1970) 1 episode
  • ''The Hollywood Greats'' (1977) 2 episodes: ''Humphrey Bogart''; ''Spencer Tracy''
  • ''The Guiding Light'' (1982) 1 episode
  • ''The Spencer Tracy Legacy: A Tribute by Katharine Hepburn'' (1986)
  • Short subject

  • ''Screen Snapshots'' (1932)
  • ''Hollywood on Parade No. A-12'' (1933)
  • ''The Fashion Side of Hollywood'' (1935)
  • ''Hollywood Party'' (1937)
  • ''Screen Snapshots Series 19, No. 9: Sports in Hollywood'' (1940)
  • ''Hedda Hopper's Hollywood'', No. 6 (1942)
  • ''Screen Actors'' (1950) (uncredited)
  • References


    Further reading

  • ''How to Be Attractive'', by Joan Bennett, 1943, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 131 pp.
  • ''The Bennett Playbill'', by Joan Bennett and Lois Kibbee, 1970, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 332 pp.
  • ''The Bennetts: An Acting Family'', by Brian Kellow, 2004, Lexington, University Press of Kentucky, 530 pp.
  • External links

  • Joan Bennett Photo Gallery
  • A collection of old time radio recordings featuring Joan Bennett
  • Category:1910 births Category:1990 deaths Category:American people of British descent Category:American film actors Category:American silent film actors Category:American stage actors Category:American television actors Category:American radio personalities Category:American memoirists Category:Actors from New Jersey Category:Deaths from myocardial infarction Category:People from Palisades Park, New Jersey Category:People from Scarsdale, New York Category:20th-century actors

    an:Joan Bennett ca:Joan Bennett de:Joan Bennett es:Joan Bennett eu:Joan Bennett fr:Joan Bennett gl:Joan Bennett it:Joan Bennett nl:Joan Bennett ja:ジョーン・ベネット no:Joan Bennett pt:Joan Bennett ro:Joan Bennett ru:Беннетт, Джоан simple:Joan Bennett sr:Џоун Бенет sh:Joan Bennett fi:Joan Bennett sv:Joan Bennett

    This text is licensed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA License. This text was originally published on Wikipedia and was developed by the Wikipedia community.

    nameMargaret Lindsay
    birthnameMargaret Kies
    birth dateSeptember 19, 1910
    birth placeDubuque, Iowa, U.S.
    death dateMay 09, 1981
    death placeLos Angeles, California, U.S.
    spouseNever Married }}

    Margaret Lindsay (September 19, 1910 - May 9, 1981) was an American film actress. Her time as a Warner Bros. contract player during the 1930s was particularly productive. She was noted for her supporting work in successful films of the 1930s and 1940s such as ''Jezebel'' (1938) and ''Scarlet Street'' (1945) and her leading roles in lower-budgeted B movie films such as the Ellery Queen series at Columbia in the early 1940s. Critics regard her portrayal of Nathaniel Hawthorne's Hepzibah Pyncheon in the 1940 film adaptation of ''The House of the Seven Gables'' as Lindsay's standout career role.

    Early life

    Born as Margaret Kies in Dubuque, Iowa, she was the oldest of six children of a pharmacist father who died in 1930 before her Hollywood career began. According to Tom Longden of the ''Des Moines Register'', "Peg" was "a tomboy who liked to climb pear trees" and was a "roller-skating fiend". She graduated in 1930 from Visitation Academy in Dubuque.



    After attending National Park Seminary in Washington, D.C., Lindsay convinced her parents to enroll her at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York. She then went abroad to England to make her stage debut. She appeared in plays such as ''Escape'', ''Death Takes a Holiday'', and ''The Romantic Age''.

    Lindsay was often mistaken as being British due to her convincing English accent, which impressed Universal Studios enough to sign her for their 1932 version of ''The Old Dark House''. As James Robert Parish and William T. Leonard wrote in ''Hollywood Players: The Thirties'' (Arlington House, 1976), Lindsay returned to America and arrived in Hollywood, only to discover that Gloria Stuart had been cast in her role in the film.

    After some minor roles in Pre-Code films such as ''Christopher Strong'' and the groundbreaking ''Baby Face'', which starred Barbara Stanwyck, Lindsay was cast in the Fox Film Corporation's award-winning ''Cavalcade''. Lindsay was selected for a small but memorable role as Edith Harris, a doomed English bride whose honeymoon voyage takes place on the ''Titanic''.

    Lindsay won the role by backing up her British accent with an elaborate "biography" that claimed she was born in a London suburb, the daughter of a London broker who sent her to a London convent for her education. "Although I looked and talked English ... to tell them I was actually from Iowa would have lost the assignment for me", she later explained.

    Her work in ''Cavalcade'' earned her a contract at Warner Bros. where she became a reliable supporting player, working with Paul Muni, Errol Flynn, Henry Fonda, Warren William, Leslie Howard, George Arliss, Humphrey Bogart, Boris Karloff and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. Lindsay was cast four times as the love interest of James Cagney in Warner films from 1933-1935. She appeared with Cagney in four films: ''Frisco Kid'', ''Devil Dogs of the Air'', ''G-Men'' and ''Lady Killer''.

    Lindsay co-starred with Bette Davis in four Warners films: as Davis's sister in 1934's ''Fog Over Frisco''; in 1935's ''Dangerous'' (for which Davis won her first Best Actress Academy Award); in ''Bordertown'', co-starring Paul Muni, and, lastly, as Davis's rival for Henry Fonda's affections in ''Jezebel'' (1938), which earned Davis her second Best Actress Academy Award.

    An example of her work in a leading role in lower budget films while at Warner Bros. was 1936's ''The Law in Her Hands'', in which she played a mob lawyer. As film historian John McCarty wrote, it was "that rarity among gangster films to offer a female in the male-dominated mouthpiece role". Author Roger Dooley identified the film as "being the only film of the 1930s to concern itself with a pair of female legal partners". Made after the Motion Picture Production Code came into effect, however, ''The Law in Her Hands'' was forced into adopting "a reactionary stance towards the gender switch", and concluded with a plot twist that was the complete opposite of the Pre-Code period (1929–1934), when "female characters on the screen could say, do, and be whatever they wanted".


    Perhaps Lindsay's finest film role was in ''The House of the Seven Gables'' in 1940, with George Sanders and Vincent Price. Directed by Joe May from a screenplay by Lester Cole, the film's musical score by Frank Skinner was nominated for an Academy Award. Price recalled that "Margaret Lindsay was a delight to work with and a very good actress." Michael Brunas, John Brunas and Tom Weaver wrote in ''Universal Horrors: The Studio's Classic Films, 1931-46'' (McFarland, 1990), Lindsay, " of the loveliest and most talented of '30s leading ladies, contributes a fine, mature performance that's probably the best, certainly the most striking, in the picture....[h]ad a Bette Davis played Hepzibah, this same performance would be hailed as a classic..."

    In a 2004 ''Classic Images'' article about actor Jon Hall, film historian Colin Briggs wrote that a letter he had received from Lindsay indicated that her part in ''The House of the Seven Gables'' was her "favorite role". Lindsay's letter to Briggs also stated that the film she had the most fun with was 1947's ''The Vigilantes Return'', in which she co-starred with Jon Hall. "...[That] role was a complete departure from my usual parts and I grabbed it.... I even warbled a Mae West type ditty. As a man-chasing saloon singer after Jon Hall it was for me a totally extroverted style and I relished the opportunity.... I have a framed still from that film on a wall in my home."

    Her 1940s film series work in Hollywood included Columbia's first entry in its Crime Doctor series, as well as her continuing role as Nikki Porter in Columbia's Ellery Queen series from 1940-1942. Author James Robert Parish wrote that "Columbia's one inspired touch in their Ellery Queen series was the addition of Nikki Porter ... as a freelance mystery writer who goes to work for Ellery as his secretary. She added a bubbling note of pretty distraction, since more often than not the plots called for her to do some amateur sleuthing to help out boss Ellery."

    Author Jon Tuska's affection for the Ellery Queen series mystified its star Ralph Bellamy. During an interview by Tuska for his 1978 book, ''The Detective in Hollywood'', he remarked, "I'm one of the few who does [like the series]." "I don't know how," Bellamy replied. "They were such quickie pictures." Tuska cited ''Ellery Queen, Master Detective'' (1940) and ''Ellery Queen's Penthouse Mystery'' (1941) as the best of the Bellamy-Lindsay pairings. "The influence of ''The Thin Man'' series was apparent in reverse", Tuska noted about ''Ellery Queen's Penthouse Mystery''. "Ellery and Nikki are unmarried but obviously in love with each other. Probably the biggest mystery... is how Ellery ever gets a book written. Not only is Nikki attractive and perfectly willing to show off her figure", Tuska wrote, "but she also likes to write her own stories on Queen's time, and gets carried away doing her own investigations." In ''Ellery Queen, Master Detective'', "the amorous relationship between Ellery and Nikki Porter was given a dignity, and therefore integrity", Tuska wrote, "that was lacking in the two previous entries in the series", made at Republic Pictures before Bellamy and Lindsay were signed by Columbia.

    Lindsay appeared in a supporting role in the 1942 film, ''The Spoilers'', starring John Wayne, and in Fritz Lang's ''Scarlet Street'' in 1945. While her work in the late 1940s would occasionally involve a supporting role in MGM films like Cass Timberlane with Spencer Tracy, her film career went into decline, with roles in films at Poverty Row studios like Monogram Pictures and PRC. She returned to the stage and co-starred with Franchot Tone in ''The Second Man''.

    1950s and 1960s

    She made her television debut in 1950 in ''The Importance of Being Earnest'', which allowed her to once again display her finely-honed British accent. More television work followed. Lindsay appeared in only four films during the 1950s and two in the 1960s. Her final feature film was ''Tammy and the Doctor'' (1963).

    Personal life

    Early in her career, Lindsay lived with her sister Helen in Hollywood. Later in life, she lived with her youngest sister Mickie. Despite being romantically linked to actors such as William Gargan and Edward Norris, she never married.


    Lindsay died at the age of 70 of emphysema in 1981 at the Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles, survived by her four sisters and one brother. She was buried at the Holy Cross Cemetery in Culver City.


    Margaret Lindsay's sister, Jane Kies (1909–1985), was also an actress under the name of Jane Gilbert. In 1940, Jane married the son of Hedda Hopper, actor William Hopper, best known for his role as Paul Drake in the ''Perry Mason'' television series. Their daughter Joan was born in 1942, and the couple divorced in the early 1960s. Lindsay's niece Peggy Kenline and great-nephew Brad Yates were also actors.

    Selected filmography

  • ''Okay, America!'' (1932)
  • ''The Fourth Horseman'' (1932)
  • ''Cavalcade'' (1933) (Academy Award for Best Picture)
  • ''Christopher Strong'' (1933)
  • ''Private Detective 62'' (1933)
  • ''From Headquarters'' (1933)
  • ''Baby Face'' (1933)
  • ''Voltaire'' (1933)
  • ''Captured!'' (1933)
  • ''The World Changes'' (1933)
  • ''The House on 56th Street'' (1933)
  • ''Lady Killer'' (1933)
  • ''Fog Over Frisco'' (1934)
  • ''The Merry Wives of Reno'' (1934)
  • ''Gentlemen Are Born'' (1934)
  • ''The Dragon Murder Case'' (1934)
  • ''Bordertown'' (1935)
  • ''Devil Dogs of the Air'' (1935)
  • ''The Florentine Dagger'' (1935)
  • ''The Case of the Curious Bride'' (1935)
  • ''G Men'' (1935)
  • ''Frisco Kid'' (1935)
  • ''Dangerous'' (1935)
  • ''Public Enemy's Wife'' (1936)
  • ''Back in Circulation'' (1937)
  • ''Green Light'' (1937)
  • ''Slim'' (1937)
  • ''Gold is Where You Find It'' (1938)
  • ''Jezebel'' (1938)
  • ''When Were You Born'' (1938)
  • ''Garden of the Moon'' (1938)
  • ''Broadway Musketeers'' (1938)
  • ''On Trial'' (1939)
  • ''Hell's Kitchen'' (1939)
  • ''British Intelligence'' (1940)
  • ''The House of the Seven Gables'' (1940)
  • ''Ellery Queen, Master Detective'' (1940)
  • ''Ellery Queen's Penthouse Mystery'' (1941)
  • ''Ellery Queen and the Perfect Crime'' (1941)
  • ''Ellery Queen and the Murder Ring'' (1941)
  • ''A Close Call for Ellery Queen'' (1942)
  • ''The Spoilers'' (1942)
  • ''Enemy Agents Meet Ellery Queen'' (1942)
  • ''A Desperate Chance for Ellery Queen'' (1942)
  • ''Crime Doctor'' (1943)
  • ''The Adventures of Rusty'' (1943)
  • ''Scarlet Street'' (1945)
  • ''Seven Keys to Baldpate'' (1947)
  • ''Cass Timberlane'' (1947)
  • ''The Vigilantes Return'' (1947)
  • ''B.F.'s Daughter'' (1948)
  • ''Please Don't Eat the Daisies'' (1960)
  • ''Tammy and the Doctor'' (1963)
  • References

    Further reading

  • Bellamy, Ralph. (1979). ''When the Smoke Hits the Fan''. Garden City, NY: Doubleday ISBN 0-385-14860-7.
  • Bookbinder, Robert. (1985). ''Classics of the Gangster Film.'' Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-1053-6.
  • Briggs, Colin. (2004). ''Jon Hall: The King of Technicolor'' in ''Classic Images'', January, 2004 issue. Muscatine, Iowa: Classic Images.
  • Brunas, Michael, Brunas, John and Weaver, Tom. (1990). ''Universal Horrors: The Studio's Classic Films, 1931 - 1946''. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0-89950-369-1.
  • Dickens, Homer. (1989). ''The Complete Films of James Cagney.'' Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-1152-4.
  • Dooley, Roger. (1984). ''From Scarface to Scarlett: American Films in the 1930s''. New York: Harcourt. ISBN 0-15-633998-6
  • Hardy, Phil (editor). (2000). ''The Overlook Film Encyclopedia: The Gangster Film''. Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press. ISBN 0-87951-881-2.
  • Katz, Ephraim. (2001). ''The Film Encyclopedia, Fourth Edition''. Revised by Klein, Fred and Nolen, Ronald Dean. New York, New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-273755-4.
  • Lawrence, Jerome. (1974). ''Actor: The Life and Times of Paul Muni''. New York, New York: Samuel French, Inc. ISBN 0-573-69034-0.
  • Maltin, Leonard. (1994). ''Leonard Maltin's Movie Encyclopedia''. New York, New York: Dutton/Penguin. ISBN 0-525-93635-1.
  • McCarty, Clifford. (1990). ''The Complete Films of Humphrey Bogart''. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-0955-4.
  • McCarty, John. (2004). ''Bullets Over Hollywood: The American Gangster Film from the Silents to The Sopranos.'' Cambridge, MA: De Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81301-7.
  • Parish, James Robert, editor. (1971). ''The Great Movie Series''. South Brunswick and New York: A. S. Barnes. ISBN 0-498-07847-7.
  • Parish, James Robert and Leonard, William T. (1976). ''Hollywood Players: The Thirties''. New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House Publishers. ISBN 0-87000-365-8.
  • Ringgold, Gene. (1990). ''The Complete Films of Bette Davis''. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-1177-X
  • Sennett, Ted. (1971). ''Warner Brothers Presents''. New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House Publishers. ISBN 0-87000-136-1.
  • Svehla, Gary J. and Susan, editors. (1998). ''Vincent Price'' [Midnight Marquee Actors Series]. Baltimore, MD: Midnight Marquee Press. ISBN 1-887664-21-1.
  • Thomas, Tony. (1990). ''The Complete Films of Errol Flynn''. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-0237-1.
  • Tuska, Jon (1978). ''The Detective in Hollywood''. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-12093-1.
  • ''Variety Obituaries, Volume 9: 1980 - 1983''. New York and London: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-0843-X,
  • Williams, Lucy Chase. (1998). ''The Complete Films of Vincent Price''. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press ISBN 0-8065-1600-3.
  • External links

  • Margaret Lindsay bio at Ellery Queen fansite
  • TVNow's monthly guide to television airings of Margaret Lindsay's films
  • Category:1910 births Category:1981 deaths Category:Actors from Iowa Category:American film actors Category:Burials at Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City Category:Deaths from emphysema Category:People from Dubuque, Iowa

    de:Margaret Lindsay es:Margaret Lindsay fr:Margaret Lindsay it:Margaret Lindsay nl:Margaret Lindsay pl:Margaret Lindsay ru:Линдсей, Маргарет sh:Margaret Lindsay

    This text is licensed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA License. This text was originally published on Wikipedia and was developed by the Wikipedia community.

    NameTony Bennett
    Birth nameAnthony Dominick Benedetto
    Birth dateAugust 03, 1926
    Birth placeAstoria, Queens, New York City, New York, United States
    GenreTraditional popJazz
    Years active1949–present
    LabelColumbia MGM Improv Legacy Recordings
    WebsiteOfficial website }}
    Anthony Dominick Benedetto, better known as Tony Bennett (born August 3, 1926), is an American singer of popular music, standards, show tunes, and jazz. Bennett is also a serious and accomplished painter, having created works — under the name Benedetto — that are on permanent public display in several institutions. He is the founder of Frank Sinatra School of the Arts in New York City.

    Raised in New York City, Bennett began singing at an early age. He fought in the final stages of World War II as an infantryman with the U.S. Army in the European Theatre. Afterwards, he developed his singing technique, signed with Columbia Records, and had his first number one popular song with "Because of You" in 1951. Several top hits such as "Rags to Riches" followed in the early 1950s. Bennett then further refined his approach to encompass jazz singing. He reached an artistic peak in the late 1950s with albums such as ''The Beat of My Heart'' and ''Basie Swings, Bennett Sings''. In 1962, Bennett recorded his signature song, "I Left My Heart in San Francisco". His career and his personal life then suffered an extended downturn during the height of the rock music era.

    Bennett staged a remarkable comeback in the late 1980s and 1990s, putting out gold record albums again and expanding his audience to the MTV Generation while keeping his musical style intact. He remains a popular and critically praised recording artist and concert performer in the 2010s. Bennett has won 17 Grammy Awards (including a Lifetime Achievement Award, presented in 2001) and two Emmy Awards, and has been named an NEA Jazz Master and a Kennedy Center Honoree. He has sold over 50 million records worldwide.

    Early life

    Anthony Benedetto was born in Astoria, Queens, New York City, one of three children of Anna (née Suraci) and John Benedetto. His father was a grocer who in 1906 had emigrated from Podàrgoni, a rural eastern district of the southern Italian city of Reggio Calabria, and his mother was a seamstress who had been born in the U.S. shortly after her parents also emigrated from the Calabria region in 1899. Other relatives came over as well as part of the mass migration of Italians to America. With a father who was ailing and unable to work, Anthony, older brother John Jr., and younger sister Mary grew up in poverty. John Benedetto Sr. instilled in his son a love of art and literature and a compassion for human suffering, but died when Anthony was 10 years old. The experience of growing up in the Great Depression and a distaste for the effects of the Hoover Administration would make the child a lifelong Democrat.

    Young "Tony" Benedetto grew up listening to Al Jolson, Eddie Cantor, Judy Garland and Bing Crosby as well as jazz artists such as Louis Armstrong, Jack Teagarden and Joe Venuti. His Uncle Dick was a tap dancer in vaudeville, giving him an early window into show business, and his Uncle Frank was the Queens borough library commissioner. By age 10 he was already singing, and performed at the opening of the Triborough Bridge, standing next to Mayor Fiorello La Guardia who patted him on the head. Drawing was another early passion of his; he became known as the class caricaturist at P.S. 141 and anticipated a career in commercial art. He began singing for money at age 13, performing as a singing waiter in several Italian restaurants around his native Queens.

    He attended New York's High School of Industrial Art where he studied painting and music and would later appreciate their emphasis on proper technique. But he dropped out at age 16 to help support his family. He worked as a copy boy and runner for the Associated Press in Manhattan and in several other low-skilled, low-paying jobs. But mostly he set his sights on a professional singing career, returning to performing as a singing waiter, playing and winning amateur nights all around the city, and having a successful engagement at a Paramus, New Jersey nightclub.

    World War II and after

    Benedetto was drafted into the United States Army in November 1944, during the final stages of World War II. He did basic training at Fort Dix and Fort Robinson as part of becoming an infantry rifleman. Benedetto ran afoul of a sergeant from the South who disliked the Italian from New York City and heavy doses of KP duty or BAR cleaning resulted. Processed through the huge Le Havre replacement depot, in January 1945, he was assigned as a replacement infantryman to the 255th Infantry Regiment of the 63rd Infantry Division, a unit filling in for the heavy losses suffered in the Battle of the Bulge. He moved across France, and later, into Germany. As March 1945 began, he joined the front line and what he would later describe as a "front-row seat in hell."

    As the German Army was pushed back to their homeland, Benedetto and his company saw bitter fighting in cold winter conditions, often hunkering down in foxholes as German 88 mm guns fired on them. At the end of March, they crossed the Rhine and entered Germany, engaging in dangerous house-to-house, town-after-town fighting to clean out German soldiers; during the first week of April, they crossed the Kocher River, and by the end of the month reached the Danube. During his time in combat, Benedetto narrowly escaped death several times. The experience made him a pacifist; he would later write, "Anybody who thinks that war is romantic obviously hasn't gone through one," and later say, "It was a nightmare that's permanent. I just said, 'This is not life. This is not life.'" At the war's conclusion he was involved in the liberation of a Nazi concentration camp near Landsberg, where some American prisoners of war from the 63rd Division had also been held.

    Benedetto stayed in Germany as part of the occupying force, but was assigned to an informal Special Services band unit that would entertain nearby American forces. His dining with a black friend from high school – at a time when the Army was still racially segregated – led to his being demoted and reassigned to Graves Registration Service duties. Subsequently, he sang with the 314th Army Special Services Band under the stage name Joe Bari (a name he had started using before the war, chosen after the city and province in Italy and as a partial anagram of his family origins in Calabria). He played with many musicians who would have post-war careers.

    Upon his discharge from the Army and return to the States in 1946, Benedetto studied at the American Theatre Wing on the GI Bill. He was taught the bel canto singing discipline, which would keep his voice in good shape for his entire career. He continued to perform wherever he could, including while waiting tables. Based upon a suggestion from a teacher at American Theatre Wing, he developed an unusual approach that involved imitating, as he sang, the style and phrasing of other musicians — such as that of Stan Getz's saxophone and Art Tatum's piano — helping him to improvise as he interpreted a song. He made a few recordings as Bari in 1949 for small Leslie Records, but they failed to sell.

    In 1949, Pearl Bailey recognized Benedetto's talent and asked him to open for her in Greenwich Village. She had invited Bob Hope to the show. Hope decided to take Benedetto on the road with him, and simplified his name to Tony Bennett. In 1950, Bennett cut a demo of "Boulevard of Broken Dreams" and was signed to the major Columbia Records label by Mitch Miller.

    First successes

    Warned by Miller not to imitate Frank Sinatra (who was just then leaving Columbia), Bennett began his career as a crooner singing commercial pop tunes. His first big hit was "Because of You", a ballad produced by Miller with a lush orchestral arrangement from Percy Faith. It started out gaining popularity on jukeboxes, then reached #1 on the pop charts in 1951 and stayed there for 10 weeks, selling over a million copies. This was followed to the top of the charts later that year by a similarly-styled rendition of Hank Williams's "Cold, Cold Heart", which helped introduce Williams and country music in general to a wider, more national audience. The Miller and Faith tandem continued to work on all of Bennett's early hits. Bennett's recording of "Blue Velvet" was also very popular and attracted screaming teenaged fans at concerts at the famed Paramount Theater in New York (Bennett did seven shows a day, starting at 10:30 a.m.) and elsewhere.

    A third #1 came in 1953 with "Rags to Riches". Unlike Bennett's other early hits, this was an up-tempo big band number with a bold, brassy sound and a double tango in the instrumental break; it topped the charts for eight weeks. Later that year the producers of the upcoming Broadway musical ''Kismet'' had Bennett record "Stranger in Paradise" as a way of promoting the show during a New York newspaper strike. The song reached the top, the show was a hit, and Bennett began a long practice of recording show tunes. "Stranger in Paradise" was also a #1 hit in the United Kingdom a year and a half later and started Bennett's career as an international artist.

    Once the rock and roll era began in 1955, the dynamic of the music industry changed and it became harder and harder for existing pop singers to do well commercially. Nevertheless, Bennett continued to enjoy success, placing eight songs in the ''Billboard'' during the latter part of the 1950s, with "In the Middle of an Island" reaching the highest at #9 in 1957.

    For a month in August–September 1956, Bennett hosted a NBC Saturday night television variety show, called ''The Tony Bennett Show'', as a summer replacement for ''The Perry Como Show''. Patti Page and Julius La Rosa had in turn hosted the two previous months, and they all shared the same singers, dancers, and orchestra. In 1959, Bennett would again fill in for ''The Perry Como Show'', this time alongside Teresa Brewer and Jaye P. Morgan as co-hosts of the summer-long ''Perry Presents.''

    A growing artistry

    In 1954, the guitarist Chuck Wayne became Bennett's musical director. Bennett released his first long-playing album in 1955, ''Cloud 7''. The album was billed as featuring Wayne and showed Benett's leanings towards jazz. In 1957, Ralph Sharon became Bennett's pianist and musical director, replacing Wayne. Sharon told Bennett that a career singing "sweet saccharine songs like 'Blue Velvet'" wouldn't last long, and encouraged Bennett to focus even more on his jazz inclinations.

    The result was the 1957 album ''The Beat of My Heart''. It used well-known jazz musicians such as Herbie Mann and Nat Adderley, with a strong emphasis on percussion from the likes of Art Blakey, Jo Jones, Latin star Candido Camero, and Chico Hamilton. The album was both popular and critically praised. Bennett followed this by working with the Count Basie Orchestra, becoming the first male pop vocalist to sing with Basie's band. The albums ''Basie Swings, Bennett Sings'' (1958) and ''In Person!'' (1959) were the well-regarded fruits of this collaboration, with "Chicago" being one of the standout songs.

    Bennett also built up the quality, and therefore, the reputation of his nightclub act; in this he was following the path of Sinatra and other top jazz and standards singers of this era. In June 1962, Bennett staged a highly-promoted concert performance at Carnegie Hall, using a stellar line-up of musicians including Al Cohn, Kenny Burrell, and Candido, as well as the Ralph Sharon Trio. The concert featured 44 songs, including favorites like "I've Got the World on a String" and "The Best Is Yet To Come". It was a big success, further cementing Bennett's reputation as a star both at home and abroad. Bennett also appeared on television, and in October 1962 he sang on the first night of the Johnny Carson ''The Tonight Show''.

    Also in 1962, Bennett released the song "I Left My Heart in San Francisco". Although this reached only #19 on the , it spent close to a year on various other charts and increased Bennett's exposure. The album of the same title was a hit and both the single and album achieved gold record status. The song won Grammy Awards for Record of the Year and Best Male Solo Vocal Performance. Over the years, this would become known as Bennett's signature song. In 2001, it was ranked 23rd on an RIAA/NEA list of the most historically significant Songs of the 20th Century.

    Bennett's following album, ''I Wanna Be Around'' (1963), was also a top-5 success, with the title track and "The Good Life" each reaching the of the pop singles chart along with the of the Adult Contemporary chart.

    The next year brought The Beatles and the British Invasion, and with them still more musical and cultural attention to rock and less to pop, standards, and jazz. Over the next couple of years Bennett had minor hits with several albums and singles based on show tunes – his last top-40 single was the #34 "If I Ruled the World" from ''Pickwick'' in 1965 – but his commercial fortunes were clearly starting to decline. An attempt to break into acting with a role in the poorly received 1966 film ''The Oscar'' met with middling reviews for Bennett; he did not enjoy the experience and did not seek further roles.

    A firm believer in the American Civil Rights movement, Bennett participated in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches. Years later he would continue this commitment by refusing to perform in apartheid South Africa.

    Years of struggle

    Ralph Sharon and Bennett parted ways in 1965. There was great pressure on singers such as Lena Horne and Barbra Streisand to record "contemporary" rock songs, and in this vein Columbia Records' Clive Davis suggested that Bennett do the same. Bennett was very reluctant, and when he tried, the results pleased no one. This was exemplified by ''Tony Sings the Great Hits of Today!'' (1970), before which Bennett became physically ill at the thought of recording. It featured misguided attempts at Beatles and other current songs and a ludicrous psychedelic art cover.

    Years later Bennett would recall his dismay at being asked to do contemporary material, comparing it to when his mother was forced to produce a cheap dress. By 1972, he had departed Columbia for the Verve division of MGM Records (Philips in the UK) and had relocated for a stint in London, where he hosted a television show from the Talk of the Town nightclub in conjunction with Thames Television, ''Tony Bennett from the Talk of the Town''. With his new label he tried a variety of approaches, including some more Beatles material, but found no renewed commercial success, and in a couple more years he was without a recording contract.

    Taking matters into his own hands, Bennett started his own record company, Improv. He cut some songs that would later become favorites, such as "What is This Thing Called Love?", and made two well-regarded albums with jazz pianist Bill Evans, ''The Tony Bennett/Bill Evans Album'' (1975) and ''Together Again'' (1976), but Improv lacked a distribution arrangement with a major label and by 1977, it was out of business.

    As the decade neared its end, Bennett had no recording contract, no manager, and was not performing any concerts outside of Las Vegas. His second marriage was failing (they would completely separate in 1979, but not officially divorce until 2007). He had developed a drug addiction, was living beyond his means, and had the Internal Revenue Service trying to seize his Los Angeles home.


    After a near-fatal cocaine overdose in 1979, Bennett called his sons Danny and Dae for help. "Look, I'm lost here," he told them. "It seems like people don't want to hear the music I make."

    Danny Bennett, an aspiring musician himself, also came to a realization. The band Danny and his brother had started, Quacky Duck and His Barnyard Friends, had foundered and Danny's musical abilities were limited. However, he had discovered during this time that he did have a head for business. His father, on the other hand, had tremendous musical talent but was having trouble sustaining a career from it and had little financial sense. Danny signed on as his father's manager.

    Danny got his father's expenses under control, moved him back to New York, and began booking him in colleges and small theaters to get him away from a "Vegas" image. After some effort, a successful plan to pay back the IRS debt was put into place. Tony Bennett had also reunited with Ralph Sharon as his pianist and musical director. By 1986, Tony Bennett was re-signed to Columbia Records, this time with creative control, and released ''The Art of Excellence''. This became his first album to reach the charts since 1972.

    An unexpected audience

    Danny Bennett felt that younger audiences who were unfamiliar with Tony Bennett would respond to his music if given a chance. No changes to Tony's formal appearance, singing style, musical accompaniment (The Ralph Sharon Trio or an orchestra), or song choice (generally the Great American Songbook) were necessary or desirable. Accordingly, Danny began regularly to book his father on ''Late Night with David Letterman'', a show with a younger, hip audience. This was subsequently followed by appearances on ''Late Night with Conan O'Brien'', ''The Simpsons'', ''Muppets Tonight'', and various MTV programs. In 1993, Bennett played a series of benefit concerts organized by alternative rock radio stations around the country. The plan worked; as Tony later remembered, "I realized that young people had never heard those songs. Cole Porter, Gershwin – they were like, 'Who wrote that?' To them, it was different. If you're different, you stand out."

    During this time, Bennett continued to record, first putting out the acclaimed look back ''Astoria: Portrait of the Artist'' (1990), then emphasizing themed albums such as the Sinatra homage ''Perfectly Frank'' (1992) and the Fred Astaire tribute ''Steppin' Out'' (1993). The latter two both achieved gold status and won Grammys for Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance (Bennett's first Grammys since 1962) and further established Bennett as the inheritor of the mantle of a classic American great.

    As Bennett was seen at ''MTV Video Music Awards'' shows side-by-side with the likes of the Red Hot Chili Peppers and Flavor Flav, and as his "Steppin' Out With My Baby" video received MTV airplay, it was clear that, as ''The New York Times'' said, "Tony Bennett has not just bridged the generation gap, he has demolished it. He has solidly connected with a younger crowd weaned on rock. And there have been no compromises."

    The new audience reached its height with Bennett's appearance in 1994 on ''MTV Unplugged''. (He quipped famously on the show, "I've been unplugged my whole career.") Featuring guest appearances by rock and country stars Elvis Costello and k.d. lang (both of whom had an affinity for the standards genre), the show attracted a considerable audience and much media attention. The resulting ''MTV Unplugged: Tony Bennett'' album went platinum and, besides taking the Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance Grammy award for the third straight year, also won the top Grammy prize of Album of the Year. At age 68, Tony Bennett had come all the way back.


    Tony Bennett's career as a painter, done under his real surname of Benedetto, has also flourished. He followed up his childhood interest with serious training, work, and museum visits throughout his life. He sketches or paints every day, even of views out of hotel windows when he is on tour.

    He has exhibited his work in numerous galleries around the world. He was chosen as the official artist for the 2001 Kentucky Derby, and was commissioned by the United Nations to do two paintings, including one for their 50th anniversary. His painting "Homage to Hockney" (for his friend David Hockney, painted after Hockney drew him) is on permanent display at the Butler Institute of American Art in Youngstown, Ohio. His "Boy on Sailboat, Sydney Bay" is in the permanent collection at the National Arts Club in Gramercy Park in New York, as is his "Central Park" at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C. His paintings and drawings have been featured in ''ARTnews'' and other magazines, and sell for as much as $80,000 apiece. Many of his works were published in the art book ''Tony Bennett: What My Heart Has Seen'' in 1996. In 2007, another book involving his paintings, ''Tony Bennett in the Studio: A Life of Art & Music'', became a best-seller among art books.

    No retirement

    Since his comeback, Bennett has financially prospered; by 1999, his assets were worth $15 to 20 million. He had no intention of retiring, saying "If you study the masters – Picasso, Jack Benny, Fred Astaire – right up to the day they died, they were performing. If you are creative, you get busier as you get older." Indeed, Bennett has continued to record and tour steadily, doing 100 to 200 shows a year. In concert Bennett often makes a point of singing one song (usually "Fly Me to the Moon") without any microphone or amplification, demonstrating to younger audience members the lost art of vocal projection. One show, ''Tony Bennett's Wonderful World: Live From San Francisco'', was made into a PBS special. Bennett also created the idea behind, and starred in the first episode of, the A&E Network's popular ''Live By Request'' series, for which he won an Emmy Award. In addition to numerous television guest performances, Bennett has had cameo appearances as himself in films such as ''The Scout'', ''Analyze This'', and ''Bruce Almighty''. In 1998 he made an unlikely but successful appearance at a mud-soaked Glastonbury in an immaculate white suit and tie. Bennett also published ''The Good Life: The Autobiography of Tony Bennett'' in 1998.

    A series of albums, often based on themes (such as Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Billie Holiday, blues, or duets), has met with good acceptance; Bennett has won eight more Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance or Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album Grammys in the subsequent years, most recently for the year 2011. Bennett has sold over 50 million records worldwide during his career.

    Accolades came to Bennett. For his contribution to the recording industry, Tony Bennett was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1560 Vine Street. Bennett was inducted into the Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame in 1997, was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001, and received a lifetime achievement award from the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) in 2002. In 2002, ''Q'' magazine named Tony Bennett in their list of the "50 Bands To See Before You Die". On December 4, 2005, Bennett was the recipient of a Kennedy Center Honor. Later, a theatrical musical revue of his songs, called ''I Left My Heart: A Salute to the Music of Tony Bennett'' was created and featured some of his best-known songs such as "I Left My Heart in San Francisco", "Because of You", and "Wonderful". The following year, Bennett was inducted into the Long Island Music Hall of Fame.

    Bennett frequently donates his time to charitable causes, to the extent that he is sometimes nicknamed "Tony Benefit". In April 2002, he joined Michael Jackson, Chris Tucker and former President Bill Clinton in a fundraiser for the Democratic National Committee at New York's Apollo Theater. He has also recorded public service announcements for Civitan International. Bennett and Susan Crow founded Exploring the Arts, a charitable organization dedicated to creating, promoting, and supporting arts education. At the same time they founded (and named after Bennett's friend) the Frank Sinatra School of the Arts in Queens, a public high school dedicated to teaching the performing arts, which opened in 2001 and would have a very high graduation rate.

    Danny Bennett continues to be Tony's manager while Dae Bennett is a recording engineer who has worked on a number of Tony's projects and who has opened Bennett Studios in Englewood, New Jersey. Tony's younger daughter Antonia is an aspiring jazz singer.

    In August 2006, Bennett turned eighty years old. The birthday itself was an occasion for publicity, which then extended through the rest of the following year. ''Duets: An American Classic'' reached the highest place ever on the albums chart for an album by Bennett and garnered two Grammy Awards; concerts were given, including a high-profile one for New York radio station WLTW-FM; a performance was done with Christina Aguilera and a comedy sketch was made with affectionate Bennett impressionist Alec Baldwin on ''Saturday Night Live''; a Thanksgiving-time, Rob Marshall-directed television special ''Tony Bennett: An American Classic'' on NBC, which would win multiple Emmy Awards; receipt of the Billboard Century Award; and guest-mentoring on ''American Idol'' season 6 as well as performing during its finale. He received the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' Humanitarian Award. Bennett was awarded the National Endowment for the Arts Jazz Masters Award in 2006, the highest honor that the United States bestows upon jazz musicians.

    The year 2008 saw Bennett making two appearances on "New York State of Mind" with Billy Joel at the final concerts given at Shea Stadium, and in October releasing the album ''A Swingin' Christmas'' with The Count Basie Big Band, for which he made a number of promotional appearances at holiday time. In 2009, Bennett performed at the conclusion of the final Macworld Conference & Expo for Apple Inc., singing the "The Best Is Yet to Come" and "I Left My Heart In San Francisco" to a standing ovation, and later making his Jazz Fest debut in New Orleans. In February 2010, Bennett was one of over 70 artists singing on "We Are the World: 25 for Haiti", a charity single in aid of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In October he performed "I Left My Heart in San Francisco" at AT&T Park before the third inning of Game 1 of the 2010 World Series and sang "God Bless America" during the seventh-inning stretch. Days later he sang "America the Beautiful" at the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear in Washington, D.C.

    Regarding his choices in music, Bennett reiterated his artistic stance in a 2010 interview: :"I'm not staying contemporary for the big record companies, I don't follow the latest fashions. I never sing a song that's badly written. In the 1920s and '30s, there was a renaissance in music that was the equivalent of the artistic Renaissance. Cole Porter, Johnny Mercer and others just created the best songs that had ever been written. These are classics, and finally they're not being treated as light entertainment. This is classical music."

    In September 2011, Bennett appeared on ''The Howard Stern Show'' and named American military actions in the Middle East as the root cause of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Bennett also claimed that former President George W. Bush personally told him at the Kennedy Center in December 2005 that he felt he had made a mistake invading Iraq, to which a Bush spokesperson replied, "This account is flatly wrong." Following bad press resulting from his remarks, Bennett clarified his position, writing: "There is simply no excuse for terrorism and the murder of the nearly 3,000 innocent victims of the 9/11 attacks on our country. My life experiences, ranging from the Battle of the Bulge to marching with Martin Luther King, made me a life-long humanist and pacifist, and reinforced my belief that violence begets violence and that war is the lowest form of human behavior."

    In September 2011, Bennett released ''Duets II'', a follow-up to his first collaboration album, in conjunction with his 85th birthday. The album's pairing with Amy Winehouse on "Body and Soul" — reportedly the last recording she made before her death — charted on the lower reaches of the Billboard Hot 100, making Bennett the oldest living artist to appear there, as well as the artist with the greatest span of appearances. The single did well in Europe, where it reached the top 15 in several countries. The album then debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, making Bennett the oldest living artist to reach that top spot, as well as marking the first time he had reached it himself. A model of Koss headphones, the Tony Bennett Signature Edition (TBSE1), was created for this milestone (Bennett having been one of the early adopters of the Koss product back in the 1960s). In November 2011, Columbia released ''Tony Bennett – The Complete Collection'', a 73 CD plus 3 DVD set, which although not absolutely "complete", finally brought forth many albums that had not had a previous CD release, as well as some unreleased material and rarities. In December 2011, Bennett appeared at the Royal Variety Performance in Salford in the presence of HRH Princess Anne. In the wake of the premature deaths of Winehouse and Whitney Houston, Bennett called for the legalization of drugs in February 2012.

    Personal life

    On February 12, 1952, Bennett married Ohio art student and jazz fan Patricia Beech, whom he had met the previous year after a nightclub performance in Cleveland. Two thousand female fans dressed in black gathered outside the ceremony at New York's St. Patrick's Cathedral in mock mourning. Bennett and Beech had two sons, D'Andrea (Danny, born around 1954) and Daegal (Dae, born around 1955). They separated in 1965, their marriage a victim of Bennett's spending too much time on the road, among other factors. In 1971, their divorce became official. Bennett became involved with aspiring actress Sandra Grant while filming ''The Oscar'' in 1965, and on December 29, 1971 they married. They had two daughters, Joanna (born around 1969) and Antonia (born 1974), and moved to Los Angeles.

    In the late 1980s, Bennett entered into a long-term romantic relationship with Susan Crow (born 1966), a former New York City schoolteacher. On June 21, 2007, Bennett married Susan in a private civil ceremony in New York that was witnessed by former Governor Mario Cuomo.

    Awards and recognition

    Bennett has won sixteen Grammy Awards and has also received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, as follows (years shown are the year in which the ceremony was held and the award was given, not the year in which the recording was released):
  • Best Solo Vocal Performance, Male, 1963, "I Left My Heart in San Francisco"
  • Record of the Year, 1963, "I Left My Heart in San Francisco"
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance, 1993, ''Perfectly Frank''
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance, 1994, ''Steppin' Out''
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance, 1995, ''MTV Unplugged: Tony Bennett''
  • Album of the Year, 1995, ''MTV Unplugged: Tony Bennett''
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance, 1997, ''Here's to the Ladies''
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance, 1998, ''Tony Bennett on Holiday''
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance, 2000, ''Bennett Sings Ellington: Hot & Cool''
  • Lifetime Achievement Award, 2001
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album, 2003, ''Playing with My Friends: Bennett Sings the Blues''
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album, 2004, ''A Wonderful World'' (with k.d. lang)
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album, 2006, ''The Art of Romance''
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album, 2007, ''Duets: An American Classic''
  • Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals, 2007, "For Once in My Life" (with Stevie Wonder)
  • Best Pop Duo/Group Performance, 2012, "Body and Soul" (with Amy Winehouse)
  • Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album, 2012, ''Duets II''
  • Bennett has won two Emmy Awards, as follows (years shown are the year in which the ceremony was held and the award was given, not the year in which the program aired):

  • Primetime Emmy Award for Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program, 1996, ''Live by Request''
  • Primetime Emmy Award for Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program, 2007, ''Tony Bennett: An American Classic''
  • Bennett has gained other notable recognition:

  • New York City's Bronze Medallion, 1969
  • Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
  • Inducted into the Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame, 1997
  • Lifetime achievement award from the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers, 2002 Kennedy Center Honoree, 2005 Inducted into the Long Island Music Hall of Fame
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Humanitarian Award, 2006
  • National Endowment for the Arts Jazz Masters Award, 2006 Inducted into New Jersey Hall of Fame, 2011



    Bennett has released over 70 albums during his career, with almost all being for Columbia Records. The biggest selling of these in the U.S. have been ''I Left My Heart in San Francisco'', ''MTV Unplugged: Tony Bennett'', and ''Duets: An American Classic'', all of which went platinum for shipping one million copies. Eight other albums of his have gone gold in the U.S., including several compilations. Bennett has also charted over 30 singles during his career, with his biggest hits all occurring during the early 1950s and none charting between 1968 and 2010.


  • Bennett, Tony. ''Tony Bennett: What My Heart Has Seen''. Rizzoli, 1996. ISBN 0-8478-1972-8.
  • Bennett, Tony, with Will Friedwald. ''The Good Life: The Autobiography Of Tony Bennett''. Pocket Books, 1998. ISBN 0-671-02469-8.
  • Bennett, Tony, with Robert Sullivan. ''Tony Bennett in the Studio: A Life of Art & Music''. Sterling Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-4027-4767-5.
  • See also

  • List of best-selling music artists
  • Bibliography


    External links

  • Official Tony Bennett music website
  • Official Tony Bennett art website
  • Legacy Records Tony Bennett website
  • Exploring the Arts website
  • Official Antonia Bennett music website
  • The Tony Bennett MySpace Page
  • Category:1926 births Category:Living people Category:American military personnel of World War II Category:American crooners Category:American jazz musicians of Italian descent Category:American jazz singers Category:American male singers Category:American painters Category:American people of Italian descent Category:American pop singers Category:Emmy Award winners Category:Grammy Award winners Category:Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award winners Category:Kennedy Center honorees Category:People from Astoria, Queens Category:People self-identifying as substance abusers Category:Traditional pop music singers Category:Columbia Records artists Category:Concord Records artists Category:Musicians from New York Category:Artists from New York City Category:MusiCares Person of the Year Category:People of Calabrian descent

    az:Toni Bennet da:Tony Bennett de:Tony Bennett et:Tony Bennett es:Tony Bennett eo:Tony Bennett fa:تونی بنت fo:Tony Bennett fr:Tony Bennett gl:Tony Bennett it:Tony Bennett he:טוני בנט pam:Tony Bennett nl:Tony Bennett ja:トニー・ベネット no:Tony Bennett pl:Tony Bennett pt:Tony Bennett ro:Tony Bennett ru:Тони Беннетт sq:Tony Bennett fi:Tony Bennett sv:Tony Bennett tl:Tony Bennett th:โทนี เบนเนต tr:Tony Bennett

    This text is licensed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA License. This text was originally published on Wikipedia and was developed by the Wikipedia community.

    nameThe Christmas Song (Merry Christmas to You)
    typeChristmas song
    artistThe King Cole Trio
    b-side"In the Cool of Evening" (Capitol 311)"Laguna Mood" (Capitol 15201)"(All I Want for Christmas Is) My Two Front Teeth" (Capitol F90036; Capitol F2955)"The Little Boy that Santa Claus Forgot" (Capitol 3561)
    format10-inch, 7-inch
    genreChristmas, Jazz, Pop
    length (1946 recording) (1953 recording)
    labelCapitol 311 (1946)Capitol 15201 (1948)Capitol F90036 (1953)Capitol F2955 (1954)Capitol 3561 (1956)
    writerMel Tormé,Bob Wells

    "The Christmas Song" (commonly subtitled "Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire" or, as it was originally subtitled, "Merry Christmas to You") is a classic Christmas song written in 1944 by musician, composer, and vocalist Mel Tormé (aka The Velvet Fog), and Bob Wells. According to Tormé, the song was written during a blistering hot summer. In an effort to "stay cool by thinking cool", the most-performed (according to BMI) Christmas song was born.

    "I saw a spiral pad on his piano with four lines written in pencil", Tormé recalled. "They started, "Chestnuts roasting..., Jack Frost nipping..., Yuletide carols..., Folks dressed up like Eskimos.' Bob (Wells, co-writer) didn't think he was writing a song lyric. He said he thought if he could immerse himself in winter he could cool off. Forty minutes later that song was written. I wrote all the music and some of the lyrics."

    The Nat King Cole Trio first recorded the song early in 1946. At Cole's behestand over the objections of his label, Capitol Recordsa second recording was made the same year utilizing a small string section, this version becoming a massive hit on both the pop and R&B charts. Cole again recorded the song in 1953, using the same arrangement with a full orchestra arranged and conducted by Nelson Riddle, and once more in 1961, in a stereophonic version with orchestra conducted by Ralph Carmichael. Nat King Cole's 1961 version is generally regarded as definitive, and in 2004 was the most loved seasonal song with women aged 30–49, while Cole's original 1946 recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1974. Mel Tormé recorded the song himself in 1954, and again in 1961, 1966 and 1992.

    The Nat King Cole recordings

    First recording: Recorded at WMCA Radio Studios, New York City, June 14, 1946. Label credit: The King Cole Trio (Nat King Cole, vocal-pianist; Oscar Moore, guitarist; Johnny Miller, bassist). Not issued until 1989, when it was (accidentally) included on the various-artists compilation ''Billboard Greatest Christmas Hits (1935–1954)'' Rhino R1 70637(LP) / R2 70637(CD).

    Second recording: Recorded at WMCA Radio Studios, New York City, August 19, 1946. First record issue. Label credit: The King Cole Trio with String Choir (Nat King Cole, vocal-pianist, Oscar Moore, guitarist; Johnny Miller, bassist; Charlie Grean, conductor of 4 string players, a harpist and a drummer) Lacquer disc master #981. Issued November 1946 as Capitol 311 (78rpm). This is featured on a CD called ''The Holiday Album'', which has 1940s Christmas songs recorded by Cole and Bing Crosby. In 2005 Capitol restored and re-released it for the 25 bit re-mastered Cole album "The Christmas Song", which also contains tracks from his 1960 and 1963 holiday albums.

    Third recording: Recorded at Capitol Studios, Hollywood, August 24, 1953. This was the song,s first magnetic tape recording. Label credit: The King Cole Trio with String Choir (Actual artists: Nat King Cole, vocal; Nelson Riddle, orchestra conductor) Master #11726, take 11. Issued November 1953 as the "new" Capitol 90036(78rpm) / F90036(45rpm) (Capitol first issued 90036 in 1950 with the second recording). Correct label credit issued on October 18, 1954 as Capitol 2955(78rpm) / F2955(45rpm). Label credit: Nat "King" Cole with Orchestra Conducted by Nelson Riddle. This recording is available on the 1990 CD ''Cole, Christmas and Kids,'' as well as the various-artists compilation ''Casey Kasem Presents All Time Christmas Favorites''. It was also included, along with both 1946 recordings, on the 1991 Mosaic Records box set ''The Complete Capitol Recordings of the Nat King Cole Trio''.

    Fourth recording: Recorded at Capitol Studios, New York City, March 30, 1961. This rendition, the first recorded in stereo, is widely played on radio stations during the Christmas season, and is probably the most famous version of this song. Label credit: Nat King Cole (Nat King Cole, vocal; Charles Grean and Pete Rugolo, orchestration; Ralph Carmichael, orchestra conductor). The instrumental arrangement is nearly identical with the 1953 version, but the vocals are much deeper and more focused. Originally done for ''The Nat King Cole Story'' (a 1961 LP devoted to stereo re-recordings of Cole's earlier hits), this recording was later appended to a reissue of Cole's 1960 holiday album ''The Magic of Christmas''. Retitled ''The Christmas Song'', the album was issued in 1963 as Capitol W-1967(mono) / SW-1967(stereo) and today is in print on compact disc. This recording of "The Christmas Song" is also available on numerous compilation albums. Some are Capitol pop standards Christmas compilations while others are broader-based. It's available on WCBS-FM's ''Ultimate Christmas Album Volume 3'', for example.

    There were several covers of Nat Cole's original record in the 1940s. The first of these was said to be by Dick Haymes on the Decca label, but his was released firstnot recorded first. The first cover of "The Christmas Song" was performed by pop tenor and bandleader Eddy Howard on Majestic. Howard was a big Cole fan, and also covered Nat's versions of "I Want to Thank Your Folks" and "I Love You for Sentimental Reasons", among others.

    Selective list of notable recordings

    "The Christmas Song" has been covered by numerous artists from a wide variety of genres, including:
  • Aaliyah
  • Trace Adkins
  • Christina Aguilera (#18 in US, #22 in Canada)
  • Clay Aiken
  • Herb Alpert
  • Thomas Anders
  • India.Arie and Stevie Wonder (winner of the Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals in 2003)
  • Aska
  • Babyface
  • Tony Bennett
  • Polly Bergen (who sang the song on the December 14, 1957 airing of her NBC variety show, ''The Polly Bergen Show'')
  • Justin Bieber and Usher (#58 in US, #59 in Canada)
  • Michael Bolton
  • Toni Braxton
  • Garth Brooks
  • James Brown
  • Les Brown and his Orchestra (with Doris Day on lead vocal)
  • Michael Bublé (his version, bearing close similarities to Celine Dion's recording of the song, reached #6 on the ''Billboard'' Adult Contemporary chart in December 2003.)
  • Kenny Burrell
  • The Canadian Brass (from their 1985 Christmas album ''A Canadian Brass Christmas'')
  • The Carpenters (from their 1978 Christmas album ''Christmas Portrait'')
  • Celtic Woman
  • Charice
  • Chicago
  • Christmas Who? (a SpongeBob Christmas special. SpongeBob and Patrick in a Christmas song sing as a lyric "...chestnuts roasting and burns in the third degree" before the ending of their song.)
  • Charlotte Church
  • Rosemary Clooney
  • Natalie Cole
  • Bing Crosby
  • Danny Davis and the Nashville Brass (1970)
  • Sammy Davis, Jr.
  • Doris Day (from her 1964 Christmas album ''The Doris Day Christmas Album'')
  • Gavin DeGraw
  • Celine Dion
  • Vanessa Doofenshmirtz (voiced by Olivia Olson on the album ''Phineas and Ferb Holiday Favorites'')
  • Bob Dylan
  • Gloria Estefan
  • Connie Francis
  • Aretha Franklin
  • Judy Garland, who sang the song in a duet with its composer, Mel Torme, on a Christmas-themed episode of her television show in December 1963.
  • Amy Grant (from her 1983 Christmas album ''A Christmas Album'')
  • Josh Groban (from his 2007 holiday album, ''Noël'')
  • Robert Goulet
  • Hampton String Quartet
  • Eddie Higgins
  • Hootie and the Blowfish
  • Whitney Houston
  • Ramon "RJ" Jacinto (from his 1988 Christmas album ''Pasko Na Naman'')
  • The Jackson 5
  • Alan Jackson (from his 2007 Christmas album ''Let It Be Christmas'')
  • Joni James (from her 1956 ''Merry Christmas from Joni''). Joni's version alters the lyric: "I'm offering this simple phrase, for kids from one to ninety-two" to "... kids from one to ninety-one".
  • Al Jarreau
  • Joe
  • Wynonna Judd
  • Peggy Lee
  • Damien Leith (from a special limited Christmas edition of his 2007 album ''Where We Land'')
  • The Lettermen
  • Lovedrug
  • Aimee Mann (from her 2006 album ''One More Drifter in the Snow'')
  • Johnny Mathis
  • Martina McBride
  • Reba McEntire
  • Brian McKnight
  • *NSYNC
  • Ricky Nelson (on the episode of TV's ''The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet'' titled "A Busy Christmas")
  • Aaron Neville
  • New Kids on the Block
  • Des O'Connor (from a Tesco Christmas advert)
  • Alexander O'Neal
  • Olivia Olson (from a 2010 Christmas album ''Phineas and Ferb: Holiday Favourites'')
  • The Partridge Family (from their 1971 Christmas album ''A Partridge Family Christmas Card'')
  • Les Paul
  • CeCe Peniston (from the 1996 Christmas album ''Merry Arizona II: Desert Stars Shine at Christmas'')
  • LeAnn Rimes (on her first holiday album ''What a Wonderful World'')
  • Raven-Symoné
  • Smokey Robinson and The Miracles (from their 1963 Christmas album ''Christmas with The Miracles)
  • Linda Ronstadt (from her 2000 Christmas album ''A Merry Little Christmas'')
  • SWV
  • Diane Schuur (nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Female in 1990)
  • Neil Sedaka (from his 2008 first-ever holiday album, ''The Miracle of Christmas'')
  • Jessica Simpson
  • Frank Sinatra (including two recordings: a virtual duet with Nat King Cole, and an actual duet with Bing Crosby)
  • Tom Smith (of the Editors) and Agnes Obel (on the 2011 Smith and Burrows album, ''Funny Looking Angels'')
  • George Strait
  • Donna Summer
  • Demi Lovato
  • The Supremes (remained unreleased until their 1965 Christmas album, ''Merry Christmas'', was re-released in 1999 with additional tracks)
  • Kim Taeyeon (of the South Korean pop group Girls' Generation)
  • Take 6
  • James Taylor
  • Team Rocket (voiced by Rachael Lillis, Eric Stewart and Maddie Blaustein on the album ''Pokémon Christmas Bash'')
  • The Temptations
  • Mel Tormérecorded by the writer four times (1954, 1961, 1966 and finally in 1992 as part of his album "Christmas Songs")
  • Frankie Valli and the Four Seasons
  • Luther Vandross
  • Andy Williams
  • Stevie Wonder (from his 1967 Christmas album ''Someday at Christmas'')
  • Dwight Yoakam
  • Ascap entry for song showing numerous other covers
  • Parodies

  • The title of ''The Simpsons'' episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" is a parody of the song.
  • Bob Rivers parodied the song with his 2000 album, and the title track from said album, "Chipmunks Roasting On an Open Fire".
  • Stan Freberg's "Green Chri$tma$" includes several snippets of holiday songs. One segment begins with a sincere-sounding "Chestnuts roasting..." and quickly segués into a mock 1950s radio or TV ad, for a brand of chestnuts, being described as if they were toothpaste or cigarettes.
  • Twisted Sister parodied the song in his 2006 album ''A Twisted Christmas''.
  • Footnotes

    External links

  • Mark Evanier on Tormé and "The Christmas Song"
  • Category:Christmas songs Category:1946 songs Category:1961 singles Category:1999 singles Category:2009 singles Category:Nat King Cole songs Category:Amy Grant songs Category:Christina Aguilera songs Category:Toby Keith songs Category:Martina McBride songs Category:Joe Nichols songs Category:George Strait songs Category:Kenny Loggins songs Category:Trisha Yearwood songs Category:Vocal duets Category:Grammy Hall of Fame Award recipients Category:Barbra Streisand songs Category:Bob Dylan songs Category:Sheryl Crow songs Category:CeCe Peniston songs Category:The Partridge Family songs

    es:The Christmas Song fr:The Christmas Song id:The Christmas Song it:The Christmas Song no:The Christmas Song pl:The Christmas Song pt:The Christmas Song simple:The Christmas Song sv:The Christmas Song tr:The Christmas Song vi:The Christmas Song

    This text is licensed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA License. This text was originally published on Wikipedia and was developed by the Wikipedia community.

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